Laboratory and Field Exercises in Soil Ecology 299

Introduction 299 Minirhizotron Studies 299

Principle 299

Description of a Minirhizotron 299 Installation of the Minirhizotrons 300 Observation and Recording 300 Getting Data from the Videotape 300 Tracing Technique 300 Automated Root Length Measures 301 Soil Respiration Studies 301 Principle 301

Materials and Supplies Needed 301 Procedure 302 Calculations 302 Litter Decomposition Studies 303 Principle 303 Litterbag Construction 304 Calculations 305 Analyses for Soil Microbial Biomass 305

The Chloroform-Fumigation K2SO4-Extraction Method 305 Principle 305

Preparation and Handling of Potassium Sulfate 306 Sample Preparation 306 Potassium Sulfate Extractions 306 Chloroform Fumigation 306 Chloroform Removal 307 Calculations 307 Sampling and Enumeration of Nematodes 308 Principle 308

Sampling Considerations 308 Sampling Tool and Precautions 309 Nematode Extraction: Baermann Funnel Method 309

Principle 309

Materials and Supplies Needed 310 Procedure 310 Killing and Fixing Nematodes with Hot and Cold Formalin (5%) 311 Materials and Supplies Needed 311 Procedure 311 Sampling and Enumeration of Microarthropods 311 Principle 311 Methods for the Study of Microarthropods 312 Sampling 312

Extraction of Microarthropods from Samples 313 Sample Sorting and Identification 315

Sampling and Enumeration of Macroarthropods 317

Principle 317 Methods for Sampling Macroarthropods 317

Sampling 317

Berlese or Tullgren Extraction 318 Flotation 318 Emergence Traps 318 Pitfall Trapping 318 Sampling and Enumeration of Earthworms 320 Principle 320 Collection of Earthworms 320 Passive Techniques 320 Behavioral Techniques 320 Indirect Techniques 323 Identification of Earthworms 323 Sampling and Enumeration of Enchytraeids 323 Principle 323 Collection of Enchytraeids 324 Identification of Enchytraeids 325

References 327

Index 375

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