Na

No No

Yes Yes Yes

Bunchgrasses N-fixers, early and late-season annual forbs

C3 grasses, C4 grasses, legumes, forbs, and woody plants

Perennial grasses and forbs

Grasses, legumes, herbs

Annual grasses, annual legumes, and annual Asteraceae

Grasses, legumes, and herbs

Ecosystem

Experimental setup

Ecosystem processesb

Grassland on old fields, Switzerland and Sweden

Plant mixtures planted in the field

Calcareous grassland Plant mixtures on old field, Switzerland planted in the field

Grassland, Greece

Plant mixtures planted in the field

No. of leafhoppers

(Cicadellidae) No. of wingless aphids

(Aphididae) No. of hymenopteran parasitoids No. of grasshoppers (acrididae) and slugs (Gastropoda) No. of carabid beetles (Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae)

Preference by volesrf Earthworm biomass1' Plant aboveground biomass, soil microbial biomass, LAI, plant light absorbance per unit ground area Mesofauna feeding activity Decomposition of standard material Soil moisture

Total aboveground biomass

Positive effects reportedc

Species Functional Functional richness richness composition

Functional types (sensu lato)

No No No No

No Yes No No

Yes Yes No No

Grasses, legumes, land forbs

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes No Yes

Grasses, legumes, and forbs

No No

No No

No NA

Yes Yes-

Annuals and perennial grasses, geophytes, and legumes

Serpentine Plant mixtures grassland, United planted in the

States field

Grasslands on old fields, Czech Republic, the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Sweden, and Spain

Grassland, United States

Annual grassland, France

Prairie grassland, United States

Plant mixtures planted in the field

Plant mixtures planted in greenhouse microcosms

Plant mixtures in greenhouse microcosms

Plant mixtures in greenhouse microcosms

Prairie grassland, Plant mixtures

United States planted in the field and in greenhouse microcosms

Aboveground biomass of invasive forb Centaurea solstitialis Impact of invader on aboveground biomass of resident species and whole-system évapotranspiration

Total aboveground biomass Suppression of natural colonizers

Aboveground biomass N retention

Invasibility (establishment of the forb Echium plantagineum)

Above- and belowground biomass, light transmission, and water retention in soil

Decomposition of standard material

Resistance to invasion (total biomass of invasive)

Annual grasses, perennial grasses

Yes Yes Yes Bunchgrasses, early-

season and late-season annual forbs

Yes NA Yes Grasses, forbs, and legumes

Yes NA Yes

Yes NA Yes C3 grasses, C4 grasses,

No NA Yes legumes, and forbs

No No Yes Grasses, legumes, and rosette dicots

Yes Yes Yes Grasses, legumes, and forbs

No No Yes

Yes NA

C3 grasses, C4 grasses, legumes, and forbs

Ecosystem

Experimental setup

Ecosystem processesb

Grassland-crop site, New Zealand

Grasslands, United Kingdom

Litterbags placed in the field

Litterbags placed in indoor soil microcosms

Decomposition rate of, rate of N release from, and active microbial biomass on litter

Soil microbial biomass

Manipulation of natural communities

Grassland, Argentina Mostly perennial grassland in neighboring paddocks under different grazing regimes

Boreal forest, Sweden

Vegetation on islands of different area, subjected to different frequencies of wildfires

Aboveground net primary production

Aboveground biomass, litter decomposition, N mineralization, and humus accumulation

Positive effects reportedc

Species Functional Functional richness richness composition

Functional types (sensu lato)

No NA Yes Grasses, weedy forbs, forbs from grasslands, and trees

N/ NA Yes Dominant species in intensively managed fertile grasslands, or traditionally managed unfertilized grasslands

Yes Cool-season graminoids, warm-season grasses, cool-season and warm-season forbs

No NA Yes

Early versus late successional species

Savannah grasslands, India

Calcareous grasslands, United Kingdom

Vegetation along a productivity, diversity, and disturbance gradient, with different burning and grazing experimental treatments

Contrasting grassland subjected to temperature and precipitation manipulations in the field

Resistance to compositional change across communities Resistance to species turnover across communities Resistance to compositional change and to species turnover within communities

Resistance of total aboveground biomass and species compositions

Mediterranean shrublands, Greece

Sand-prairie grassland, United States

Sites naturally differing in species diversity and growth-form composition

Experimental removal from natural communities on old fields

Aboveground biomass

No. of individuals and cover of invaders Light transmittance through canopy Soil moisture, soil extractable N, and aboveground biomass

No« NA« Yes8 Not explicit, communities dominated by the Yes« NA No grasses Cymbopogon

No« NA No flexuosus or Aristida setacea

No NA Yes Communities dominated by fast-growing early successional species or by slow-growing, stress-tolerant perennial grasses and sedges

Yes NA Yes Cistus sp., other shrubs, and herbs

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