Primary Production Processes in Soils Roots and Rhizosphere Associates

Introduction 23

The Primary Production Process 23 Methods of Sampling 25 Destructive Techniques 25 The Harvest Method 25 Isotope-Dilution Method 28 Root-Ingrowth Technique 28 Nondestructive Techniques 30 Additional Sources of Primary Production 34 Symbiotic Associates of Roots 34 Mycorrhizal Structure and Function 36

Ecosystem-Level Consequences of ECM Function 37 Actinorhiza 38

Carbon Allocation in the Root/Rhizosphere 38 Carbon Allocation Costs of Development and Maintenance of Symbiotic Associations with Roots 42 Future Directions for Research on Roots and Mycorrhizal

Function and Biodiversity 44 Summary 46

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