Secondary Production Activities of Heterotrophic Organisms The Soil Fauna

Introduction 79 The Microfauna 83

Methods for Extracting and Counting Protozoa 86 Distribution of Protozoa in Soil Profiles 87 Impacts of Protozoa on Ecosystem Function 87 The Mesofauna 89 Rotifera 89

Features of Body Plan and General Ecology 89 Nematoda 90

Nematode Feeding Habits 90 Nematode Zones of Activity in Soil 93 Nematode Extraction Techniques 94 Tardigrada 95 Microarthropods 98 Collembola 101

Families of Collembola 103 Population Growth and Reproduction 107 Collembolan Feeding Habits 107 Collembolan Impacts on Soil Ecosystems 108 Acari (Mites) 109 Oribatid Mites 111

Abundance and Diversity of Oribatid Mites 114 Population Growth 116 Oribatid Feeding Habits 116 Oribatid Impacts on Soil Ecosystems 119 Prostigmatic Mites 119 Mesostigmatic Mites 122 Astigmatic Mites 124 Other Microarthropods 128 Protura 128 Diplura 129 Microcoryphia 130 Pseudoscorpionida 130 Symphyla 131 Pauropoda 133 Enchytraeidae 133 The Macrofauna 141 Macroarthropods 141

Importance of the Macroarthropods 141 Isopoda 143 Diplopoda 145 Chilopoda 146 Scorpionida 147 Araneae 149 Opiliones 151 Solifugae 152

Uropygi 152 The Pterygote Insects 153 Coleoptera 154 Hymenoptera 159 Diptera 161 Isoptera 162 Other Pterygota 166 Gastropoda 167

Sampling Techniques for Gastropods 168 Oligochaeta—Earthworms 169

Earthworm Distribution and Abundance 170 Biology and Ecology 171 Influence on Soil Processes 176 Earthworm Management 178 Earthworm Sampling and Identification 179 General Attributes of Fauna in Soil Systems 181 Faunal Feedbacks on Microbial Community Composition and Diversity 182 Summary 184

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