John L Harper

Chapel Road, Brampford Speke, Exeter, UK FOURTH EDITION

fjk Blackwell


© 1986, 1990, 1996, 2006 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd


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9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK

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The right of Mike Begon, Colin Townsend and John Harper to be identified as the Authors of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright,

Designs, and Patents Act 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher

First edition published 1986 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd Second edition published 1990 Third edition published 1996 Fourth edition published 2006

1 2006

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Begon, Michael.

Ecology : from individuals to ecosystems / Michael Begon, Colin R. Townsend, John L. Harper.—4th ed. p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-1-4051-1117-1 (hard cover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-4051-1117-8 (hard cover : alk. paper)

1. Ecology. I. Townsend, Colin R. II. Harper, John L. III. Title. QH54.B416 2005

577—dc22 2005004136

A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library.

Set in 9.5/12 Dante MT by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by CPI Bath Press

The publisher's policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufatured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementary chlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards.

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