Speciation

It is clear, then, that natural selection can force populations of plants and animals to change their character - to evolve. But none of the examples we have considered has involved the evolution of

Frequency Peppered Moth Forms 1950

Figure 1.6 Change in the frequency of the carbonaria form of the peppered moth Biston betularia in the Manchester area since 1950. Vertical Unes show the standard error and the horizontal Unes show the range of years included. (After Cook et al., 1999.)

Year

Figure 1.6 Change in the frequency of the carbonaria form of the peppered moth Biston betularia in the Manchester area since 1950. Vertical Unes show the standard error and the horizontal Unes show the range of years included. (After Cook et al., 1999.)

a new species. What, then, justifies naming two populations as different species? And what is the process - 'speciation' - by which two or more new species are formed from one original species?

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