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Sugar Crush Detox

This program was designed by Jane who had the same problems with sugar. Throughout her life, she was addicted to sugar and she thought she needs swift intervention before that habit develops into something else. She had an experience that helped her beat sugar addiction with the rest of the world. Her program helps you cut all the roots of majority of the health problems you usually gets. It attacks the weight loss problem at its source which is the biological craving for sugar. This product was specifically created to help people with sugar cravings beat this addiction and lead a healthy life. This program contains a couple of guides available in PDF, MP3 and video formats. The author used simple language in all the formats to ensure that everybody will be able to handle sugar addiction. If you are one of them and you want to get the full support required to quit sugar and lead a heathy life, then Sugar Crush Detox is for you. More here...

Sugar Crush Detox Summary

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AlsO of Plant Material Other Than Sucrose and Cellulose

The oxygen isotopic composition of molecules other than sucrose and cellulose has not often been measured (but see Schmidt et al., 2001). However, it is known that whole leaf tissue is significantly less enriched than cellulose (Barbour and Farquhar, 2000 Barbour et al, 2000a). Of the secondary metabolites, the

Isotopic Exchange Between Water and Organic Oxygen

Acetone has a half-time to equilibration with water of about lOmin, while fructose 6-phosphate takes 166 min and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate 29 min (Model et al, 1968). These rates are likely to be considerably faster in vivo, when enzymes such as aldolase would catalyze the reactions (Model et al., 1968). The most important exchange occurs in triose phosphates, as two of the three oxygen atoms are in carbonyl groups and the half-time to equilibration is known to be rapid (Sternberg et al, 1986, 1989 Farquhar et al, 1998). By following the AlsO of sucrose after a step change in vapor pressure deficit (VPD), Barbour et al (2000b) clearly demonstrated that the AlsO of sucrose reflects the leaf evaporative environment. Considering the rapid exchange expected in triose phosphate, Barbour et al (2000b) suggested that sucrose synthesized and immediately exported from a leaf should be in full isotopic equilibrium with average leaf water. However, the possibility that...

Experimental Approaches using Saprotrophic Cord forming Wood Decay Basidiomycetes to Investigate Effects of Carbon and

Figure 2 Biomass increase with nitrogen supply, accompanied by suppression of cord development in Coniophora puteana at nitrogen content over 0.25 mg l_1. Basal medium, g l sucrose, 20 KH2PO4, 1 MgSO4 7H2O, 0.5 FeSO4 7H2O, 0.01. When C. puteana mycelium, pre-grown on a permeable cellulose membrane over nitrogen-free agar medium, was transferred to a split plate with uniform high carbon as sucrose on one side but only nitrogen on the other, there was a striking differentiation of behaviour on each side of the plate. Mycelial extension, accompanied by cord development, accelerated on the N-limited side, apparently supplied with nitrogen by the cords that developed across the carbon-only medium. Extension ceased on the N-rich side, and cord development did not occur. However, biomass increased threefold, and metabolism appeared to alter, the mycelium releasing a dark brown pigment into the medium, presumably as a result of the onset of secondary metabolism.

Omics Technologies from Cell to Field

Figure 5 Evidence that compatible individuals, each of which had access to either a carbon or a nitrogen source, but not both, can share nutrients and enhance joint biomass by fusion, while incompatible individuals cannot. Split plates containing, on one side only nitrogen, as 1 g l 1 monosodium glutamate, on the other only carbon, as 40 g T1 sucrose, were inoculated with paired mycelia of Serpula lacrymans, using either compatible (S7 with S7) or incompatible (S7 with S16) pairs. Plates were inoculated with small inoculum discs placed next to, and on either side of, an air gap. Biomass is in mg fresh wt, means of three replicates, 1 week after inoculation. cords formed to link compatible mycelia while incompatible ones formed a barrage. Figure 5 Evidence that compatible individuals, each of which had access to either a carbon or a nitrogen source, but not both, can share nutrients and enhance joint biomass by fusion, while incompatible individuals cannot. Split plates containing, on...

Rhizobia Legume Symbiosis

In order to sustain N2 fixation, the host plant must supply the bacteroids with a carbon source, which arrives to the root nodule via phloem as sucrose. However, this sugar is metabolized in the host cell and converted to C4 dicarboxylates, principally malate. The dicarboxylates, in fact, are transported across the peribacteroid membrane, becoming the primary carbon source for the N2-fixing organisms.

Oxidation of Fats and Amino Acids

Obviously, glucose is not the only fuel used by living things. Our foods contain other sugars, such as lactose in milk and fructose in the disaccharide sucrose (table sugar). The success of dieters hinges on the body's ability to use fat as fuel of course, this is why the body stores fat in the first place. Under starvation conditions, the body obtains its energy for basic cell function by cannibalizing itself, by oxidizing its proteins. The sugars are converted fairly easily into either glucose or another intermediate in the glycolysis pathway. In the case of sucrose and glycogen, these polysaccharides are split into simple sugars by phosphorolysis (splitting by phosphate) instead of hydrolysis. This results in glucose-6-phosphate, the intermediate in glycolysis that just follows the point where an ATP is reacted with glucose to get things going. Thus, the extra ATP is not needed, and glycolysis yields one more ATP than for glucose itself.

Spectrophotometric Methods

Enzymes involved in C cycling (xylanase, cellulase, invertase, and trehalase) are measured based on the release of sugars after incubating soils with a buffered solution (pH 5.5) containing their corresponding substrates (xylan, carboxymethyl-cellulose, sucrose, or trehalose). The incubation period depends on the substrate used high-molecular-weight substrates are incubated for 24 h, whereas low-molecular-weight substrates are incubated for only 1 to 3 h. Reducing sugars released during the incubation period cause the reduction of potassium hexa-cyanoferrate(III) in an alkaline solution. Reduced potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) reacts with ferric ammonium sulfate in an acid solution to form a complex of ferric hexacyanoferrate(II) (Prussian blue), which is determined colorimetrically.

Compounds Being Decomposed

Both categories comprise a few major types (or groups) of compounds soluble, or labile, versus relatively insoluble (in water) nonlabile, or resistant, compounds. Compounds in the former category include organic acids, amino acids, and simple sugars. Compounds in the latter category include lignin, cellulose, cutins, and waxes. One should also consider biochemical versus biological bond types as defined by McGill and Cole (1981). These reflect the differences between ester linkages, designated R-C-O-O-R, which yield energy when broken, and the car-bonyl C-N, C-P, or C-S bonds, which require energy to be cleaved, yielding nutrients to the microbes (Newman and Tate, 1980).

Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction

Substrates for the principal enzyme of the carbon-reduction or Calvin cycle ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (Rubisco) (Fig. 4). The first product of carboxylation of RuBP by Rubisco is phosphoglyceric acid (PGA) a compound with three carbon atoms, hence, the name C3 photosynthesis. With the consumption of the ATP and NADPH produced in the light reactions, PGA is reduced to a triose-phosphate (triose-P), some of which is exported to the cytosol in exchange for inorganic phosphate (Pi). In the cytosol, triose-P is used to produce sucrose and other metabolites that are exported via the phloem or used in the leaves. Most of the triose-P remaining in the chloroplast is used to regenerate RuBP through a series of

Converting the Memory Trace to the Engram

In summary, high levels ofPKA activity in the honeybee mushroom body are caused by an elevated level of cAMP, which results from the convergence of CS odor and US sucrose signals in Kenyon cells. Protein kinase A then activates CREB. CREB, in turn, modulates the activity of particular genes. A Ca2+-dependent mechanism can also increase CREB binding and gene expression. CS- and US-induced activity converge at PKA (because Ca2+

Other Metabolic Responses to Anoxia

For example, metabolic responses to anoxia are reflected in protein metabolism and in the repression or expression of genes under different levels of oxygen availability. For example, some of the proteins produced under anaerobic conditions are those involved in ethanol fermentation. These proteins are involved in the pathways that mobilize sucrose or starch for ethanol fermentation and they are necessary to maintain energy production under anaerobic conditions. In addition to these proteins, others have been noted in some plants, for example, proteins that induce the production of alanine and lactate (Ricard et al. 1994). Echinochloa crus-galli, a flood-tolerant grass, produces anaerobic proteins during the first 24 h of flooding, but resumes aerobic protein synthesis thereafter (Kennedy et al. 1992). Further discovery and detailing of altered gene expression under anoxia may indicate ways in which flood-tolerant plants are metabolically adapted to anoxia (Kennedy et al. 1992 Ricard...

CO2 Production in Soils

The trees, there also seems to be a significant leakage of C compounds from the fungal cells to the wider community of soil organisms (Garbaye, 1994 Timonen et al, 1998 Hogberg and Hogberg, 2002). Heterotrophic activity, on the other hand, encompasses anything from decomposition of simple sugars leaked from plant roots to the degradation of secondary products like the large complex macromolecules collectively termed humus. Hence, the division between autotrophic and heterotrophic is not clear-cut.

Biogeochemical Cycles

Another major focus of ecosystem ecology is understanding how the chemical elements necessary for life persist and translocate in pools and fluxes within the ecosphere. The biosphere actively interacts with the three abiotic spheres (hydrosphere, atmosphere, and lithosphere) to provide the available concentration of each for life. This action has a significant impact on the relative distribution of these elements. The simple sugar products of photosynthesis, C6H12O6, are the base for organic matter, so carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen dominate the composition of life, and while oxygen is available in the lithosphere, and hydrogen in the hydrosphere, carbon is actually quite scarce in the environment, making the disproportionate amount of carbon in biomass a hallmark of life. In fact, there are about 20 elements used regularly in living organisms, of which nine called the macronutrients are the major constituents of organic matter hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, calcium, potassium,...

Plant QTLs that have been identified

In tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), a major QTL for fruit weight, fw2.2, has been cloned (Frary et al. 2000). fw2.2 encodes a protein with predicted structural homology to the human oncogene c-H-ras p21. fw2.2 is semi-dominant, and the large-fruit allele is expressed earlier and at higher levels in young fruit (Cong et al. 2002), perhaps due to differences at the promoter. No evidence for selection at fw2.2 in Lycopersicon was found (Nesbitt and Tanksley 2002). Another tomato QTL, brix, controlling soluble solids in tomato fruits has also been cloned (Fridman et al. 2000). The location of the Brix9-2-5 QTL was narrowed down to a 484 bp interval by high-resolution mapping. Across this narrow interval are several polymorphisms in the intron of a fruit-specific apoplastic invertase gene. When the wild allele is introgressed into domesticated tomato it leads to increased fructose and sucrose levels.

Dissolved organic substances

Use of DOC by anaerobic bacteria Obligate and facultative anaerobic microorganisms can obtain energy through fermentation in the anoxic environment of the sediments, and hypolimnion of eutrophic lakes and in the monimolimnion of meromictic lakes. This process involves redox reactions in which polymers are hydrolyzed into monomeric organic molecules such as simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids. These monomers are then split, with one part being reduced and the other part being oxidized. The end product of the oxidation is carbon dioxide and the end products of the reduction are alcohols, organic acids, or very reduced gases (hydrogen, methane, hydrogen sulfide). Ammonium is also the end product of amino acid fermentation. Relatively little energy is gained from fermentation, compared to aerobic respiration and nitrate respiration. When glucose is oxidatively respired, there is a gain of 2802kJmol-1, whereas fermentation to ethanol releases only 67kJmol-1 and fermentation to...

Osmotic pressure and salts

And muscles in many organisms, the specific ion composition of water bathing a nematode can influence water balance and motility independently of osmotic pressure. Extreme effects from unbalanced salts were seen in the experiments of Robinson et al. (1984b), where monocationic solutions of Mg2+ or Na+, with Cl- or NO- present as the anion, stopped all movement by the normally highly spontaneously motile J4 of the foliar parasite D. phyllobius in water at 100 mequiv l-1. Under the same conditions, sucrose, mannitol and a synthetic soil solution at equivalent osmolality had no obvious effect on motility or water content. No volume loss was observed at toxic concentrations of Mg2+ or Na+ and nematodes fully recovered from Na+ but not Mg2+ exposure when returned to a synthetic soil solution. Thus, Wright (1998) justifiably criticized the use of single salt solutions for studying nematode water and ion regulation. The same warning should be extended to the study of plant-parasitic nematode...

Summary phosphate balance

Pi occurs in the cell as substrate, as well as product, in all activations and enzyme reactions with ATP and ADP and simultaneously regulates many enzyme reactions. Because of this important physiological activity, the concentration of Pi in the cytosol is regulated in a very narrow range, 4-6 mmol l-1, the vacuole serves as storage site. The relative concentration of Pi in the cytosol and chloroplasts regulates (together with the concentration of sucrose in the cytosol) the formation of starch in the chloroplast (Fig. 2.3.14).

Bumble bee behavior on artificial inflorescences

Artificial inflorescence experiments attempt to bridge the gap between bee-board experiments and pollinator behavior in the field some have been used to test optimality models (Cartar & Abrahams 1996). We used artificial inflorescences to test both for frequency dependence and differences in the numbers of flowers visited per inflorescence between morphs (A. Smithson & L. Gigord, unpublished data). We made artificial inflorescences from green plastic rods 40 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, the top of which held 10 flowers arranged spirally around the rod 1.5 cm apart. Flowers were colored card stock corollas, with central holes that gave access to wells inside the rod, into which we pipetted sucrose solution. We conducted two experiments in a cage, with inflorescences of purple and yellow arranged randomly on a grid at frequencies of 50 yellow 25 purple and 50 purple 25 yellow. Worker bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) from a captive colony foraged singly.

Essential and Substitutable Resources

Just as every resource can be consumed by different species, every species consumes different resources. Some of these resources are essential for growth, while others are substitutable. All chemical elements that are required for cellular growth, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, carbon, potassium, and iron are essential resources. It depends on the species, which chemical forms of these resources it can use. As a carbon source, for example, heterotrophic microorganisms like E. coli can use sugars like fructose. However, E. coli does not rely on fructose only. It can also live on many other sugars, such as maltose, ribose, and galactose. These different sugars therefore constitute substitutable resources for E. coli.

Effects of Low Temperatures on Photosynthesis

When plants grown at a moderate temperature are transferred to a lower temperature, but within the range normal for the growing season, photosynthesis is initially reduced (Fig. 34). Photon absorption is not affected by temperature, but the rate of electron transport and biochemical processes are reduced as a direct consequence of the lower temperature. Particularly, sucrose metabolism and or phloem loading can become limiting for photosynthesis, causing feedback inhibition (Fig. 27). Acclimation to the lower growth temperature involves up-regulation of the limiting components of the photosynthetic apparatus. Hence, the capacity for electron transport ( max) is increased, and Rubisco levels increase as well with the proportional increase in carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) (Atkin et al. 2006). Feedback inhibition is alleviated by increased expression of enzymes of the sucrose synthesis pathway (Stitt & Hurry 2002). Acclimation comprises therefore an increase in photosynthetic capacity...

Nutrient dynamics and immune defense by hosts

Host insects similarly confront resource constraints that can affect their life history. In Lepidoptera, for example, sugar feeding by adults increases longevity and fecundity, but essential amino acids are acquired primarily from the larval diet, which places an upper limit on the use of adult dietary resources for reproduction (O'Brien et al. 2002, 2004). Even in host insects with similar larval and adult diets, resource allocation of nutrients acquired during the larval and adult phase can vary with time or by tissue. Dietary sucrose and yeast provides virtually all of the carbon Drosophila melanogaster allocates to eggs, but the origin of these sugar carbons shifts from larval sources in the first clutches of eggs laid by a female to almost exclusively adult sources in subsequent clutches. In contrast, more than 30 of sugar carbons allocated to adult somatic tissues derive from larval reserves, suggesting that resources acquired during different life stages are allocated...

Factors Influencing Fluid Handling

In seeking to maximize their rate of energy intake, insect nectarivores must select from a variety of floral resources. One constraint faced by these foragers is that nectar viscosity increases exponentially with sucrose concentration, and Equation 9.1 tells us that nectar intake rate declines with viscosity. Thus, the rate of energy intake will be maximized at some intermediate concentration (Figure 9.8). Because the pressure drop P varies with fluid properties 92 , the position of this optimal nectar concentration will depend on the precise mechanism of force production. Sucrose ( ) Viscosity (mPas) Sucrose ( ) Sucrose ( ) Viscosity (mPas) Sucrose ( ) FIGURE 9.8 Relationships between energy intake rate, nectar intake rate, viscosity, and sucrose concentration. Because viscosity increases exponentially with sucrose concentration (A) and volumetric nectar intake rate declines with viscosity (B), energy intake rates will be maximized at intermediate sugar concentrations (C). Graphs are...

Environmental Influences on Floral Nectar Constituents

Although laboratory feeding experiments have been largely confined to nectar intake rates on pure sucrose solutions (but see 95-97 ), floral nectars in nature are often composed of a suite of sugars in various proportions along with small concentrations of amino acids and other compounds 98 . These chemical constituents influence both the physical properties of nectar 26 and its energetic value to a given pollinator 96,98 . Fructose and glucose, for instance, which are found in moderate concentrations in insect flowers, are both less viscous than sucrose at the same concentration 26 . However, in choice tests, pure sucrose is preferred over either of these sugars Note In general, animals were timed while feeding from large volumes of aqueous sucrose solution and the volume or mass change of the solution was recorded upon completion of the feeding bout. In general, insect-pollinated flowers tend to be sucrose dominant 98 , and nectar intake rates observed in the laboratory provide a...

Have Nectar Sugar Concentrations Evolved to Match Pollinator Preferences

Euglossine bees are derived suction feeders with an optimal nectar sugar concentration that falls between 30 and 40 sucrose 31 . We compiled data on the nectar sugar concentrations recorded from flowers in 28 species in 9 families that euglossine bees are known to visit and categorized these flowers as euglossine specialists or generalists (Table 9.5). Overall, we found a close match between optimal nectar sugar concentrations and the concentrations found in specialist flowers. More significantly, however, we observed lower variance in sugar concentrations in specialist as compared to generalist flowers, but we caution that verifying this trend requires additional data and phylogenetic controls. In comparison with sympatric bees that lap nectars, eugloss-ine bees also tend to forage from flowers with more dilute rewards (Table 9.6). Other analyses of floral nectars have supported partitioning of pollinator guilds on the basis of sugar concentration 89,98,116 , but as is evident from...

Human Coexisence with Bonobos

With specific reference to bonobo conservation, the Iyaelima recognize their human-like characteristics. They distinguish bonobos from all other wildlife in a number of ways, including that they are as intelligent as humans, can call their neighbors to come, can communicate with each other, build houses deep in the forest, walk upright (bipedal) like humans, have arms similar to humans and equally strong in a fight, have no tail, come to their gardens to eat sugar cane, bananas, and maize but are not considered to be crop raiders, and can dance like humans. It is noteworthy that they perceived the concept of bonobo lore - promoting stories from other groups about traditional beliefs - as having no value as a conservation tool. They viewed education campaigns to promote bonobos as our closest living relative as offensive and degrading or derogatory, especially because familial ties define all aspects of their lives. The Iyaelima report feeling no kinship with bono-bos. Their folk tales...

Primary Saprotrophs Spatial organization in bacteria

There are attempts at investigating the role of the bacterial assemblage in the soil at this scale of resolution. One approach is to use tagged cells which can be identified from samples. For example, in an elegant, study Jaeger et al. (1999) designed Erwinia herbicola with a reporter gene to determine the presence, activity and location of this strain in experiments. The reporter gene was the ice nucleation gene inaZ from Pseudomonas syringae. The assay for the presence and abundance of transformed cells is by a simple droplet-freezing protocol, followed by counting the number of ice nucleation sites mm according to established procedures. The study showed that this approach was adequate to map the abundance and location of the cells and their substrate along root tips. In this study, both tryptophan and sucrose abundance in root exudates could be mapped along the root by monitoring the active tagged cells.

Additive Mixed Modelling Applied on Deep Sea Pelagic Bioluminescent Organisms

The oceans, with a mean depth of 3,729 m and extending to a maximum depth of 11 km comprise the largest habitat on earth. The distribution of living organisms in this vast environment is far from uniform and description of this variation in space and time is challenging, both from the point of view of sampling and of statistical analysis. Most life in the oceans is dependent on primary production in the surface layers, generally in the epipelagic zone down to a depth of 200 m, where there is sufficient solar radiation to sustain photosynthesis. Microscopic algae or phyto-plankton containing the pigment chlorophyll intercept solar light and use the energy to combine CO2 and water to produce simple sugars polysaccharides, oils, proteins, and all the other constituents of the living organism. The algae and phytoplankton are either consumed by planktonic animals or dies loses buoyancy and becomes part of the downward stream of particulate organic matter (POC) falling towards the sea...

Modularity as an Aspect of Behavioral Plasticity

The on-off switch mechanism that defines modular structure is the locus of environmental and genetic influence on the timing and degree of sensitivity of a behavioral response. For example, research on honeybees shows that the proboscis (tongue) extension reflex of worker bees is more readily stimulated by greater concentrations of sugar (sucrose) solutions. The threshold for this response is different in different genetic strains of honeybees - it is readily affected by artificial selection. It is also affected by the feeding and foraging experience of individual bees, age (accompanied by hormonal changes), time of year, and the quality of nectar being collected by nestmates. That is, the threshold for the nectar response of the bee is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. Particular chromosomal regions (QTLs, or quantitative trait loci) that affect this threshold have been localized and shown to be associated with gene products (neurochemicals such as octopamine and...

Biochemical composition digestion and assimilation

In attempting to derive generalizations concerning the fitness consequences of parasitoid food- and host-foraging, we focus on nectar and honeydew insofar as they are sources of one general type of metabolic (potentially both catabolic and anabolic) substrate - namely carbohydrate. However, nectar and honeydew should not be viewed merely as naturally occurring equivalents of the sucrose solutions that parasitoids are given in the laboratory - they typically contain a diverse array of sugars. Some of the sugars require digestion, pre-orally and or post-orally, whereas others do not, and some sugars cannot be utilized at all. Although we have found it necessary to gloss over these subtleties in our models, we briefly elaborate on them below, to highlight the complexity of the nutritional ecology of parasitoids. In nectars, the sugars principally comprise monosaccharides and disaccharides, but some longer-chain sugars are also present (Percival 1961, Wackers 2001). However. carbohydrate...

Plant Biomass Composition

Dry matter consists mainly of carbohydrates, lignins, oils fats, organic acids, and proteins, and primarily originates from sugars produced via the photosynthetic process. Dry matter is obtained once the water is extracted from the fresh organs. As extremes, dry matter may be 95 of the fresh one for seeds and 3.5 for a cucumber fruit, but plant dry matter content ratio is generally about 15 of the fresh weight and in this article it is assumed that the ratio of dry weight to fresh weight remains constant.

Frost Resistance in Giant Rosette Plants 1241 Afro Alpine Plants Freezing Tolerance

According to (12.3), the concentrations of solutes in the protoplast, which determine n, are therefore given by the water potential of the ice, which is linearly dependent on the subfreezing temperature. The increased cytoplasmic concentrations of solutes may damage or protect membranes and proteins. Often special cry-oprotective solutes decrease the injurious effects of high ion concentrations on the membranes. In Afro-alpine plants, sucrose is most likely to fulfil such a role (Beck 1994a). Cryoprotectants are similar to compatible solutes discussed above in relation to osmotic stress (Sect. 7.4 and Box 7.1). In fact extracellular ice formation is nothing more than a dramatic osmotic stress, however, at low temperatures.

Utilization of reserves

While being primarily used in somatic maintenance and locomotion (see above), storage sugars, such as trehalose, are also a potential source of glucose for egg manufacture, including yolk synthesis (see above) (Chapman 1998, Suarez et al. 2005). Storage sugars can be replenished and supplemented by feeding. 'Body sugar' levels increased over the life-span of sucrose-fed M. grandii females, whereas they declined in females given only water (Olson et al. 2000). Sugar-deprived females of the phorid fly parasitoid Pseudacteon tricuspis could maintain the teneral level of body sugars for only one day, whereas honeydew-fed females showed an initial increase over the teneral level, maintaining it throughout life (Fadamiro & Chen 2005). In field-released V. canescens, sugar resources increased well above teneral levels, presumably as a result of feeding (Casas et al. 2003). In M. grandii, glycogen levels at adult emergence are below the maximum levels recorded in older, sucrose-fed...

Reticulate evolution and sugarcane

Sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum, exceeds all other sugar-producing crops, contributing 75 of the sucrose utilized by humans (Dillon et al. 2007). This cultivar is capable of accumulating (in its stem) between 16 and 50 of its fresh and dry weight, respectively, as sucrose (Dillon et al. 2007). Brazil and India are the two largest producers of raw sugar from S. officinarum, with both countries devoting 4 million hectares of land to its cultivation (Bolling and Suarez 2001 Singh et al. 2007). Each of the years during the period 1997-2001, Brazil produced 250-300 million metric tons of sugarcane, yielding 20 million metric tons of raw sugar (Bolling and Suarez 2001). Brazil's population (fifth largest in the world) has also demonstrated a historically high utilization of sugar as a caloric source, annually averaging 9.5 million tons consumed countrywide and with each citizen consuming 50 kg of sugar per year (Bolling and Suarez 2001). Furthermore, during the year 2000, Brazilian sugar...

Statedependence of parasitoid foraging behavior

Further evidence that nutritional state influences foraging decisions comes from both host-feeding and non-host-feeding parasitoids. In the host-feeder, Aphytis melinus, the decision to take a blood meal varies with the food type given beforehand. The propensity to host-feed is lower when females have previously fed on a diet containing yeast than when they have fed on a pure sucrose solution (attributable to the yeast diet containing pro-teinaceous materials that fuel ovigenesis) (Heimpel & Rosenheim 1995). Eijs et al. (1998) found that Leptopilina heterotoma, a non-host-feeder, feeds only when its fat reserves are low.

The effects of experience and learning

Nutritional state-dependence of parasitoid behavior (Section 7.7, and see also Chapter 6 by Strand and Casas) is also evident with regard to conditioned odor preferences. Lewis and Takasu (1990) showed that the non-host-feeder Microplitis croceipes is capable of associative learning of, and subsequent discrimination between, host- and food-associated odors. Conditioned odor preferences have also been reported in other parasitoids (Patt et al. 1999, Rose et al. 2006). Having conditioned wasps to associate these odors with their respective resources, Lewis and Takasu (1990) showed, in a wind tunnel experiment, that sucrose-deprived females preferred to fly toward the food-associated odor, whereas sucrose-fed

Future work 7111 Empirical studies

Another important factor to consider is the nitrogen contained in nectar and honey-dew. Nitrogen may occur in typically minuscule amounts, but it could nevertheless make a significant contribution to egg manufacture either when (i) carry-over of EPRs is constrained due to poor larval feeding (Mevi-Schutz & Erhardt 2005, Jervis & Boggs 2005) or (ii) EPRs have been depleted post-emergence. However, in the host-feeder E. vuilleti, protein intake via blood meals has no effect on fecundity (Giron et al. 2004). Thus, there may be non-host-feeding parasitoids in which dietary nutrients are involved, to a significant degree, in egg manufacture, and so the resource compartmentalization scheme we adopted would not apply. Instead, at the most basic level, there would need to be one compartment involved in fueling both somatic functions and egg manufacture, while the other would be entirely devoted to egg manufacture (this might comprise only lipids). There may even be parasitoid species to which...

Behavioural Relevance

Foragers (Dornhaus and Chittka, 2001) seem to be the signals predominantly responsible for alerting recruits, sounds are produced as well by foragers on entering and leaving the nest (Schneider, 1972 Heidelbach et al., 1998 Oeynhausen and Kirchner, 2001). In Bombus terrestris, the number of leaving sounds correlates well with the sucrose concentration of the collected sugar solution (Oeynhausen and Kirchner, 2001). These sounds therefore possibly represent a recruitment signal, informing unemployed foragers about the existence of a valuable food source (Oeynhausen and Kirchner, 2001). However, only further studies will elucidate the true meaning of these sounds for the hive bees.

Commensals in Animals

Whether or not the gut bacteria are considered commensals or mutualists depends on how strictly the definitions are applied. Besides synthesizing vitamins, the bacteria in the human gut, like those in animal rumens or termite guts, break down plant polysaccharides into simple sugars that are utilized by their host. However, human gut bacteria cannot break down the larger and more complex plant polymers such as cellulose, which can be utilized by herbivores with a rumen, such as cattle, or by termites with a diverse gut flora. Complex carbohydrates pass through the human intestine relatively unaltered. Nevertheless, the efficiency of plant polysaccharide breakdown exhibited by human gut microbes is significant.

The fibrinogen domain immunolectin FBN gene family

All of the mammalian FBG domain proteins contain a common pathogen-binding FBG domain at their C-terminus, while the N-terminal sequences vary from one organism to another the FBG domain of ficolins is involved in binding N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and other sugars this activity resembles that of the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of C-type lectins and provides evidence for a PRR role for these molecules (Miller et al, 1993 Lu and Le, 1998 Lu et al, 2002 Endo et al, 2007). L-Ficolin has a globular structure similar to that of a CRD, a bouquet structure that is composed of 12 fibrinogen-like domain subunits that form a tetramer consisting of four triple helices produced through multimeriza-tion of collagen-like domains. Thus, multimeriza-tion of the N-termini of these molecules may help the FREPs to form multimeric protein bundles with potentially increased affinity and specificity for particular pathogens (Fujita, 2002).

Nematode Extraction Techniques

Soil Fecal Pellets Fauna

Nematodes may be extracted by a variety of techniques, either active or passive in nature. The principal advantage of the oldest, active method, namely the Baermann funnel method, is that it is simple, requiring no sophisticated equipment or electricity. It is based on the animal's movement and gravity. Samples are placed on coarse tissue paper, on a coarse mesh screen, and then placed in the cone of a funnel and immersed in water. After crawling through the moist soil and filter paper, the nema-todes fall down into the neck of the funnel and fall to the bottom of the funnel stem, which is closed off with a screw clamp on a rubber hose. At the conclusion of the extraction (typically 48 h), the nematodes in solution are drawn off into a vial and kept preserved for examination later. Drawbacks to the technique are that only active nematodes are extracted. It also allows dormant nematodes to become active and eggs to hatch into juveniles and be extracted, yielding a slightly inflated...

Vascular plants soilpH mineral nutrients and microorganisms

Fungal associations with tree roots are almost universal in long-established woodlands, in which mycorrhizas are of great importance (see Section 5.4.1). Fungi of ectotrophic mycorrhizas form a compact sheath of hyphae over the roots, which are stimulated to form the numerous stubby branches commonly seen in beech, oak, eucalypts and pine. Mineral nutrients (notably N and P) and water absorbed from the soil by the fungi are passed to the trees, from which the fungi receive simple sugars. Tree growth is often limited by the level of available phosphate association with mycorrhizal fungi greatly improves the situation. In difficult situations, such as the establishment and maintenance of agro-forestry in semi-arid regions, inoculation of young trees with mycorrhizal fungi can be a very wise investment. The height of seedlings in their first year from new forest nurseries in New Zealand was always very variable until the soil had become inoculated with suitable mycorrhizal fungi.

Short Term Regulation of Photosynthetic Rate by Feedback

Under conditions of ''feedback inhibition (Sect. 4.1), phosphorylated intermediates of the pathway leading to sucrose accumulate, inexorably decreasing the cytosolic Pi concentration. In the absence of sufficient Pi in the chloroplast, the formation of ATP is reduced and the activity of the Calvin cycle declines. That is, less intermediates are available and less

Responses to osmotic stress

The osmotic physiology of phloem feeders involves sugars rather than salts and is closely connected with their carbon nutrition. Phloem sap has high and variable sugar concentrations (up to about 0.8 M sucrose). Aphids (Homoptera, Aphididae) must feed more or less continuously to obtain sufficient nitrogen, and excess sugar and water is excreted as honeydew. Aphids solve the problem of an osmotically concentrated diet by maintaining high haemolymph sugar levels, and polymerizing dietary sugars to form oligosaccharides, such as the trisaccharide melezitose (Fisher et al. 1984 Rhodes et al. 1997). Pea aphids, A. pisum, reared on 0.75 M sucrose produce honeydew with a mean oligosaccharide length of 8.2, consisting mainly of glucose monomers because the fructose moiety of ingested sucrose is assimilated (Ashford et al. 2000). The extent of oligosaccharide synthesis is directly related to the dietary sucrose concentration, with the result that haemolymph and honeydew osmolalities remain...

Bees food quality and body temperature

Of water-collecting honeybees measured by thermography resembles that of bees feeding on 0.5 M sucrose, indicating similar motivation (Schmaranzer 2000). Similar results, showing Tth to be 3oC higher in bees feeding on high sucrose concentrations, have been obtained using thermocouples (Waddington 1990). Not surprisingly, the metabolic rate of honeybees likewise varies with the reward rate at the food source and the motivational state of the bees. Direct effects of nectar load on metabolic rate (Wolf et al. 1989) can be eliminated by training bees to collect food in a respirometer so that they need not transport it (Moffat and Nunez 1997). The metabolic rate of free-flying bees collecting food in a much larger respirometer is also inversely proportional to Ta at constant sucrose flow rate (Moffatt 2001), supporting previous studies showing variation of heat production during flight (Roberts and Harrison 1999). The beauty of infrared thermography is that it does not disturb social...

Anatomical and physiological adaptations

Although there is little difference in the fermentation process itself, with volatile fatty acids (VFAs) being the products of polysaccharide breakdown, there are interesting consequences for protein and carbohydrate metabolism among the ruminants and nonruminants. In ruminants, not only cellulose, but also simple carbohydrates and proteins are fermented in the forestomach before the ingesta reach the small intestine. As simple sugars are fermented into VFAs, there are limitations to rapid mobilization of energy through absorption of glucose in the small intestine among many ruminants. The fermentation of protein into ammonia and subsequent recycling of nitrogen through urea and microbial protein synthesis, however, ensure that ruminants do not suffer from amino acid imbalances in the diet. Nonruminants, on the other hand, do not have the same advantage of digestion of microbial proteins. The proteins and simple carbohydrates are already absorbed in the small intestine before the...

Conservation biological control

And (iii) parasitoids often use floral nectar under natural conditions. In reviewing the experimental evidence for improved parasitoid performance in the presence of floral nectar, Heimpel and Jervis (2005) noted that there was evidence of increased parasitism in 7 of 20 field studies, but that only one of these 7 showed a simultaneous reduction in pest density, while 2 did not and 4 did not monitor host density. Since this review, several other studies have shown enhanced rates of parasitism under field conditions in the presence of floral nectar (Tylianakis et al. 2004, Lavandero et al. 2005, Berndt et al. 2006, Winkler et al. 2006), but there have been no further reports of a reduction in pest densities. An increase in parasitism in the presence of floral nectar can result from a combination of two effects an increase in parasitoid density due to greater attraction or retention of parasitoid females and an increase in the per capita performance of the parasitoids. It is not clear...

Photosynthesis

Figure 1 A schematic of oxygen-evolving photosynthesis. Light is absorbed by pigments associated with photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) which excite electrons that leave a special pair of chlorophylls and pass through a series of electron-transport carriers, eventually reducing NADP to NADPH. Protons transported across the membrane in the reduction and oxidation of plastoquinone (PQ) are used to form ATP from ADP and phosphate. ATP and NADPH power the conversion of PGA to carbohydrates (hexoses, and then starch and sucrose). Arrows indicate the path of electron flow. OEC, oxygen-evolving complex CYT B, cytochromeb6f complex PC, plastocyanin Fd, ferridoxin NADP red., NADP + reductase. Figure 1 A schematic of oxygen-evolving photosynthesis. Light is absorbed by pigments associated with photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) which excite electrons that leave a special pair of chlorophylls and pass through a series of electron-transport carriers, eventually reducing...

Glycolysis

Pyruvate is a link to numerous other biochemical pathways, besides feeding into the respiration pathway. It can be made into alanine, leading to synthesis of amino acids. Pyruvate is also the starting point for many fermentation products described below. Some of the other glycolysis intermediates are also used to synthesize other sugars or amino acids. There also are other less important pathways for glucose catabolism. The cell shifts to them to control the level of ATP in the cell or to form other compounds.

Biosynthesis

Many of the smaller molecules of the cell, whether those used directly or those used as building blocks of macromolecules, are synthesized from precursors found among the intermediates of respiration. These anabolic pathways connect respiratory intermediates with other sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and fats, and nucleic acids. Virtually all the pathways in a cell are interconnected in a network of reactions.

Carbohydrates

An enormous volume of research has been done on this topic (for reviews see Moore-Landecker, 1993 Jennings, 1995 Moore, 1998a), though it is important to remember that conditions in the laboratory are far removed from the natural environment. The crucial insights came from Hawker's (1939,1947) experiments simple sugars tend to favour asexual spore production while oligo- and poly-saccharides are especially good carbon sources for production of fruit bodies. Glucose often represses fruit body production, even in very low concentrations. The rate with which a fungus can hydrolyse a carbohydrate determines the ability of the carbohydrate to promote fruit body formation (Hawker and Chaudhuri, 1946), so what seems to matter most is the rate of supply and ease of use of substrates as determinants of their value in promoting fruit body formation. It comes as no surprise, therefore, that saprotrophic Basidiomycota on dung fruit more readily than those utilising leaf litter, and in turn than...

The US Pathway

The unconditioned response ofextending the proboscis in response to sucrose begins with sucrose receptors on the proboscis that send projections to the subesophageal ganglion (Rehder 1989). In the subesophageal ganglion, a group of ventral unpaired median (VUM) neurons receive input from the sucrose receptors. One of these neurons, the VUMmx1, responds to sucrose with a long burst of firing that outlasts the actual sucrose US presentation (Hammer 1993). Axons of the VUMmx1 neuron converge with the CS pathway at three different sites the antennal lobe, the lateral protocerebral lobe, and the lip and basal ring of the mushroom body calyces (see fig. 3.1). There are thus several sites where information about the odor CS and the sucrose US converge. neuron, the mushroom body calyces and the antennal lobe, result in classical conditioning of the PER when the odor CS is paired with octopamine (Hammer and Menzel 1998). When octopamine and other biogenic amines are depleted by treatment with...

Cellular Mechanisms

Thus, the arrival of the CS odor signal and the US sucrose signal at the mushroom bodies activates adenylate cyclase and increases intracellular Ca2+ levels. The arrival of both signals produces a greater change within mushroom body neurons than either signal would alone. Olfactory cues alone would lead to a transient increase in Ca2+ levels. Stimulation of sucrose receptors would lead to a transient activation of cAMP (through adenylate cyclase activation) and a transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. If these two inputs arrive within the appropriate time interval, however, the two effects occur together, and the resulting intracellular change is different, at least quantitatively, from the effect produced by either signal alone. Figure 3.2. Convergence ofodorCS and sucrose US signals in Kenyon cells of the honeybee mushroom body. (A) CS alone CS-induced activity from the antennal lobes arrives in the mushroom bodies, triggering release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine...

Biotic factors

Chemical bonds present in the organic compounds, (2) the amount of energy released by their decay, and (3) the size and structure of these compounds and their nutrient content. Glucose and other simple sugars have high carbon quality for microbial decomposer, followed by cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignin, a structural compound second only to cellulose in quantitative importance in most plant tissues, has a content ranging from 2 to more than 50 in plant dry weight. These polyphenols dramatically slow the decomposition and mineralization rates. The quality of organic matter is generally expressed (especially in biogeo-chemical models) in terms of the C N ratios of litter, soil organic matter, and microbial biomass, though the mechanistic role of C N ratios in the decomposition and mineralization processes is still not completely understood. Because microbes are generally more N limited than carbon limited, lower C N ratios in plant residues usually lead to higher decomposition rates....

Soil Organic Matter

Known density (such as sucrose, sodium polytungstate or sodium iodide). The latter is called density fractionation and is very useful in estimating the amount of labile litter in the soil. It is based on differences between the density of the minerals (more dense) and the organic matter (least dense). The more biologically accessible fraction (for decomposition) is the light fraction. The light fraction is that which floats on top of the liquid and consists mainly of fine litter fragments, macrodetritus and microdetritus, that are decomposed to varying degrees. The intermediate fraction consists of organic matter covering and attached to minerals. This SOM is more decayed than the light fraction and is mostly humus. The heavy fraction consists of mineral particles, with little or no SOM attached. In these assays, the light fraction is usually

Summary

Although foraging models usually refrain from any commitment to specific causal mechanisms, it is generally recognized that learning, memory, perception, and other cognitive processes play a crucial role in foraging. One of the simplest forms of animal learning, classical conditioning, enables foragers to learn about environmental cues that predict the presence of food. The neural basis of classical conditioning has been examined in the honeybee. Neural pathways convey information from odor and sucrose receptors to the mushroom bodies ofthe honeybee brain. Intracellular second messenger systems respond to the co-occurrence of odor and sucrose signals, initiate gene transcription, and cause the long-lasting changes in neurons that are the basis of associative learning. The vertebrate hippocampus has been implicated in many ofthe cognitive processes that are essential to foraging. Neurophysio-logical and comparative research has addressed the role of the hippocampus in spatial...

Biofilms

Biofilms readily develop on the surfaces of leaves and wood. Microbial biomass and exoen-zyme accumulation were greater on wood (icecream sticks of white birch) than sugar maple leaves in a boreal river in upper New York State (Golladay and Sinsabaugh 1991), suggesting that wood may be an important site of biofilm development in streams. McNamara and Leff (2004) tested the response of several bacteria species to leachate from sugar maple leaves at various stages of decomposition using an agar substrate that allowed the leachate to diffuse through filters on which bacteria were enumerated. Species differed in their response to components of leaf leachate such as tolerance to phenolic compounds, demonstrating how the composition of microbial assemblage can influence its ability to utilize the mixture of labile, refractory, and inhibitory compounds. Measurements of uptake of tree-tissue leachate in streambed sediments within recirculating mesocosms found that most DOC was bioavailable,...

Pollen viability

The most widely used and reliable indirect method for assessing pollen viability is the fluorochromatic reaction (FCR) test (Dafni 1992). The reagent is prepared by placing 10 ml of freshly made 15 sucrose solution in a transparent vial. A solution of 20 mg fluorescein diacetate in 10 ml acetone is prepared, and added drop by drop (1 3 drops in total) to the sucrose solution until it turns a light milky or greyish colour. Dehydrated pollen grains should be stored for 10 30 min under high relative humidity before the test, to enable membrane recovery. The pollen sample is dispersed in a drop of the fluorescein diacetate solution the microscope slide is placed in a Petri dish lined with wet filter paper for 10 min and then the drop is covered with a coverslip. The drop can then be examined under a fluorescent microscope, through a violet exciter filter. Pollen grains with bright golden-yellow fluorescence can be scored as viable undeveloped or empty grains will not fluoresce. To record...

Water Conservation

Recently, it was determined that adding citric acid to control the pH of fruit fluming waters reduced water use without increasing bacteria. A pH of 4 (Figure 8.2.4) will maintain optimum conditions with cut fruit, such as peaches. The system not only reduces the total water volume and therefore the amount of wastewater discharged, but also increases product yield due to decreased solids loss from sugar and acids leaching. Consequently, total organic pollutants in the wastewater are reduced. Flavor and color of the canned fruit are also improved because of better soluble solid retention.

Osmoregulation

Ing the physiological adaptation to desiccation. The removal of excess ions occurs with water outflow. The most effective and potent is usually glycine-betaine, because it is a non-ionic zwitterion. Trehalose, which is also abundant in fungi, helps to stabilize the cell membrane against desiccation. The accumulation of glutamate is necessary in some species. Where it occurs, it can account for up to 90 of the free amino acids in the cytoplasm. Species often have a hierarchy of responses to desiccation. For example, the accumulation of glycine-betaine can inhibit the accumulation of proline and ectoine, which are a back-up system in certain species. Several others also occur in prokaryotes, such as sucrose, d-mannitol, d-glucitol, l-taurine and small peptides.

Locomotion

The fact that honeybee and orchid bee flight is fueled by glucose (Gmeinbauer & Crailsheim 1993, Suarez et al. 2005) suggests that parasitoids likewise can fuel their flight - which is energetically very costly (see Hoferer et al. 2000, on C. glomerata) - using this particular sugar). Since glucose can be obtained either directly or indirectly from sugar-rich foods, consumption of the latter is likely to influence the propensity to initiate flight, the duration of flights, and possibly other dispersal-related variables. Flight initiation was slightly increased by honey provision in female Trichogramma minutum (Forsse et al. 1992). Flight duration in Nasonia vitripennis was not affected by prior exposure to honey (King 1993), but Wanner et al. (2006) showed that pre-flight feeding by female C. glomerata on floral and extrafloral nectar increased the insects' flight capacity, defined as either the longest single flight (i.e. duration), the number of flights undertaken, or the total...

Egg manufacture

Among non-host-feeders there are species in which feeding increases the rate of ovigenesis compared with a diet of water (V. canescens, Harvey et al. 2001), but there are also species in which it appears not to do so (e.g. Phanerotoma franklini, Sisterton & Averill 2002). In M. grandii, the egg maturation rate is higher in starved, water-fed females than in sucrose-fed females (Olson et al. 2000). We discuss this somewhat surprising result below (Section 7.11).

Maintenance costs

And melanism, and the melanic, high-density phenotype has significantly higher levels of phenoloxidase activity than the non-melanic, low-density phenotype (Reeson et al., 1998, 2000 Wilson and Reeson, 1998 see below). Contrary to expectation, females raised under high-density conditions laid approximately 26 more eggs than those reared at low density when they were fed only water as adults (there was no phase difference in fecundity when the adult moths were fed on sucrose solution) (Mensah and Gatehouse, 1998). This is despite the fact that low-density females were significantly smaller, and fecundity tends to increase with body weight in this species (B.A. Mensah, unpublished). Thus, under laboratory conditions at least, high-density, melanic females do not appear to incur a fecundity cost to investing in immune function. However, in the wild, their lower body mass may impose a survival cost that is not evident in the laboratory. Moreover, the costs of melanism may not be...

The CS Pathway

Schematic diagram of the CS and US pathways for olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. The olfactory CS detected by the antenna is relayed to the antennal lobe (AL) and then by acetylcholine-containing projections to the lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) and the calyx (c) of the mushroom body (MB). The sucrose US detected at the proboscis is relayed to the subesophageal ganglion (s) and then by the octopamine-containing VUMmx1 nerve to the antennal lobe, the lateral protocerebral lobe, and the calyx of the mushroom body. The mushroom body, antennal lobe, and lateral protocerebral lobe are all bilateral structures that occur on both sides of the brain. Figure 3.1. Schematic diagram of the CS and US pathways for olfactory conditioning in the honeybee. The olfactory CS detected by the antenna is relayed to the antennal lobe (AL) and then by acetylcholine-containing projections to the lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) and the calyx (c) of the mushroom body (MB). The sucrose US...

Provisioning

On the outbound flight from hive to feeder, honeybees fly faster when the sucrose concentration at their destination is greater (von Frisch and Lindauer 1955). They fly more slowly on the return trip, and speed does not vary with concentration. Load size increases with concentration. Honeybee workers have higher body temperatures and cool more slowly after landing on higher-concentration sucrose solutions (Schmaranzer and Stabenheiner 1988).

Starch

FIGURE 12.6 Common sugars of the plant cell wall and their interconversions. The modifications to convert D-glucose into other sugars are highlighted in light blue. FIGURE 12.6 Common sugars of the plant cell wall and their interconversions. The modifications to convert D-glucose into other sugars are highlighted in light blue. Hemicelluloses and pectin are composed of 5-C sugars or glycans. The majority of glycans of flowering plants consist of D-xylose, D-glucuronic acid, and D-arabinose. A common cross-linked structure is (1-4)-D-glucan and (1-4)-D-xylose found in all dicotyledons and about half of monocots. In many grasses, the major cross-linked glycan is glucuronoarabinoxylan. Cereals and grasses also contain a mixed linkage of 1-3(1-4)-D-glucans as a distinguishing component of the cross-linked glycan-cellulose microfibril network. A mixture of heterogeneous, branched, highly hydrated polysaccharides composed mainly of D-galacturonic acid is called pectin. Pectins are thought...

Somatic maintenance

In starved, host-deprived V. canescens, the level of body sugars likewise declined (glycogen dynamics were not studied) (Casas et al. 2003). Injection of sugar solutions directly into the haemolymph of female Eupelmus vuilleti, a host-feeding species, resulted in an increase in longevity (an effect observed with a mixture of sucrose and trehalose but not with either sugar injected on its own) over that observed with injection of water alone (Giron et al. 2002). The results of the aforementioned studies indicate the use, by para-sitoids, of sugars in fueling somatic maintenance. That dietary (i.e. exogenous) sugars fuel somatic maintenance in non-host-feeding parasitoids is evident from the numerous laboratory measurements that have been made of parasitoid longevity (Syme 1977, Foster & Ruesink 1984, Hagley & Barber 1992, Idris & Grafius 1995, Olson & Nechols 1995, Dyer & Landis 1996, Mathews & Stephen 1997, Baggen & Gurr 1998, Olson et al. 2000, Ide & Lanfranco 2001, Siekmann...

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