Underground Buildings

There are many variants, both ancient and modern, of earth sheltered or fully underground buildings. An underground building can be defined as a house having its roof and at least two walls covered by layers of earth more than 50 cm deep.The insulation value of earth is about one-twenty-fifth of the value of mineral wool, so if the roof is thinner than 2-3 m, extra insulation is needed. By planting trees or bushesonthe roof, heat loss is reduced. The building should preferably be on a...

Global Warming

Global climate change is probably the greatest threat we face today (IPCC, 2007) (Figure 2.1). A wide range of greenhouse gases must be considered (Table 2.4). Carbon dioxide comprises over half of all greenhouse gas emissions. The three principal anthropogenic sources of these climate gases are energy production, chemical industry and waste cycles. Of these, the energy related sources dominate. They stem mainly from fossil fuel combustion in power plants and the transport sector. Table 2.3...

Deconstruction And Recycling

The method of fixing very largely determines to what extent a product can be disassembled for re-use, material recycling or energy recovery. Mechanical connections are clearly preferable. Components fixed with adhesives or mortars will, in many cases, be difficult to disassemble that may also require onerous cleaning. When mechanical connections are used, notching and holing should be avoided where possible and fixing free zones should be a part of the design to maximize the re-use value of...