Climatic materials

Climate regulating materials control the indoor climate, and are mainly orientated towards comfort. They can be subdivided into four groups:

• temperature regulating.

• moisture regulating.

• noise regulating.

Temperature regulating materials include thermal insulation materials built into the outer walls and roof, as well as materials that reflect heat radiation or stabilize room temperature through high thermal capacity. The main reasons for using temperature regulating materials are to increase thermal comfort and reduce energy use for space acclimatization (heating and/or cooling).

Air regulating materials are usually composed of thin barriers covering the complete building envelope to resist air flows through the construction. The three major motives are to increase the thermal comfort for the inhabitants, reduce the risk of moisture problems and reduce the energy needed for space acclimatization. Air barriers are also used in internal walls between cold and warm rooms, where there is a chance of a draught being caused in the warm room.

Moisture regulating materials are used for waterproofing, and to prevent vapour produced from people and processes inside the building from penetrating walls and roof and creating moisture problems, especially through condensation. They also include materials that can regulate and stabilize moisture both within the construction and in the indoor air.

Noise regulating materials are necessary to reduce transfer of sound of different types both in and between rooms, as well as between inside and outside, and to provide a good acoustic climate.

Certain climate regulating materials have qualities that put them in two or three of these groups (Table 14.1). A thermal insulation material can also be airtight, regulate moisture and even stop noise. Different functions can also be combined, e.g. timber can be a moisture-regulator while acting as a structural and surface material.

Table 14.1 Climatic materials in building

Material

Thermal regulation

Air regulation

Moisture regulation

Noise regulation

Insulation Buffering

Tightening

Tightening

Buffering

Insulation

Snow

Lu

Lu

Metals, sheets and foils

Lu

Lu

Gu

Foamed concretes

Lu

Aerated concretes

Gu

Lu

Gu

Concretes with light aggregate

Gu

Gu

Gypsum boards

Gu

Lu

Lu

Gu

Fossil meal

Nu

Nu

Nu

Perlite

Gu

Gu

Vermiculite

Lu

Lu

Silica aerogel

Nu

Foamglass

Gu

Lu

Mineral wool

Gu

Gu

Montmorillonite

Gu

Low-fired bricks

Lu

Lu

Light expanded clay pellets

Gu

Lu

Earth plaster

Lu

Lu

Bitumen products

Gu

Gu

Plastic mastics and sealing strips

Gu

Gu

Plastic sheets and foils

Gu

Gu

Foamed plastics

Gu

Loose fill from plant fibres and cellulose

Gu

Lu

Gu

Matting from plant fibres and cellulose

Gu

Lu

Gu

Boarding from plant fibres

Gu

Gu

Lu

Gu

Loose fill and boarding from peat

Nu

Nu

Nu

Paper from cellulose

Lu

Matting from wool

Lu

Lu

Lu

Matting from recycled textiles

Lu

Lu

Lu

Note: Construction materials that quite often will possess good thermal stabilizing, moisture buffering and sound insulating properties, are not included in the table. This also goes for surface materials used for interior cladding which are important moisture buffers. Empty spaces indicate that use is irrelevant.

Abbreviations: Gu: In general use; Lu: In limited use; Nu: Not in use

Note: Construction materials that quite often will possess good thermal stabilizing, moisture buffering and sound insulating properties, are not included in the table. This also goes for surface materials used for interior cladding which are important moisture buffers. Empty spaces indicate that use is irrelevant.

Abbreviations: Gu: In general use; Lu: In limited use; Nu: Not in use

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