Contents

Foreword to the Second Edition xii

Introduction xiii

The ecology of building materials xv

How to use this book xv

Other guidelines for reading this book xviii

Part 1 Environmental profiles and criteria for assessment 1

1 Resources 3

Material resources 6

Actions for resource conservation in the production of materials 6

Reduction of the use of materials in the building 8

Raw materials in a world context 18

Energy resources 19

Stages of energy consumption in building materials 19

Reduction of energy consumption in the building industry 21

References 27

2 Pollution 29

Energy pollution 29

Material pollution 30

Global warming 31

Climate emissions from the building sector 32

Carbon processes in building materials 34

Other pollutants 35

Environmental poisons 35

Substances that reduce the ozone layer 36

Acid substances 36

Formation of photochemical oxidants (low ozone) 40

Eutrophicating substances 40

Particles 41

Genetic pollution 41

Nanoparticles 41

Reduction of pollution in the production of materials 42

Reduction of pollution in construction, use and demolition 43

References 47

3 Local production and the human ecological aspect 49

The quality of work 51

Technology 52

Economy and efficiency 53

Reconnecting to the natural systems 55

References 55

4 The chemical and physical properties of building materials 57

An introduction to the chemistry of building materials 58

Radioactivity 58

Weights of the substances in a chemical reaction 59

Supply and release of energy in chemical reactions 60

Other conditions for chemical processes 61

The elements 61

Important factors in the physics of building materials 62

References 63

Further reading for part one 64

Part 2 Raw materials and basic materials 65

5 Water and air 67

Water 67

Ice and snow 68

Air 69

6 Minerals 71

Metallic minerals 71

Raw materials 75

Recycling 75

Metals in building 76

Iron and steel 76

Aluminium 78

Copper 80

Zinc 80

Secondary building metals 80

Non-metallic minerals 82 The most important non-metallic mineral raw materials for the building industry 86

Non-metallic mineral basic materials in building 91

Cements and limes 91

Glass 99

References 104

7 Stone 107

Production of building stone 110

Extraction methods 111

Dividing and cutting blocks 113

Sorting and cutting slate 115

Crushed stone or stone block? 116

References 116

8 Soil materials 119

Soil materials in building 120

Sand and gravel as aggregate in cement products 122

Earth as a building material 123

Finding and extracting raw materials 125

Deciding technical properties 126

Moisture and shrinkage 127

The preparation of earth 128

Earth structures 128

Brick and other fired clay products 128

Brick manufacture 129

Manufacture of ceramic tiles 134

Production of light expanded clay 135

Fired clay products and reduced energy consumption 136

References 138

9 Fossil oils 139

The basic materials 142

Bitumen and tar 142

Solvents and other chemicals 142

Plastics in building 146

Pollution related to the most important building plastics 148

Durability of plastic products 153

Recycling 1 55

References 156

10 Plants

Living plants Turf

Climbing plants and hedges

Timber

Forestry

The durability of timber Recycling Grasses and other small plants Cultivating and harvesting Preparation Building chemicals from plants Cellulose References

11 Materials of animal origin

References

12 Industrial by-products

Industrial gypsum Sulphur Silicate dust Blast furnace slag Fly ash Fossil meal

Fibrous cellulose sludge References

Further reading for part two

Part 3 Building materials

13 Structural materials

Metal structures Concrete structures

The composition of concrete The durability of concrete products Recycling Stone structures

Structural elements Structural brickwork Brick products Recycling Earth structures

Suitable types of earth Stabilizing aggregate and other additives Methods of construction Timber structures

Structural elements in timber The use of timber in building Turf constructions

Resource use and climate load of different structural systems References

14 Climatic materials

Temperature regulating materials Air regulating materials Moisture regulating materials Noise regulation Snow as a climatic material Metal-based materials Materials based on non-metallic minerals Cement products Gypsum products Fossil meal products

165 168

176 1 76

1 83

185 1 85

186 186 187 187

187 1 87

195 200 201 201 202 204 206 206 208 209

210 216 217 219

233 237

240 243 245

252 252 254

Perlite and pumice products 259

Vermiculite products 259

Silica aerogel 260

Foamglass 260

Mineral wool 261

Montmorillonite 262

Fired clay materials 262

Earth and sand as climatic materials 264

Bitumen based materials 268

Plastic materials 269

Environmental aspects 270

Timber materials 272

Sawdust and wood shavings 274

Bark 276

Woodwool cement 277

Defibrated wood fibre 278

Wood fibre matting 279

Porous wood fibre boards 279

Moss and grass materials 281

Grass plants 282

Moss 286

Bog peat 287

Cellulose 289

Materials based on animal products 290

Materials based on recycled textiles 291

References 297

15 Surface materials 299

Metal surface materials 302

Non-metallic mineral surface materials 303

Roofing 304

Sheets for cladding 305

Plaster 307

Flooring 309

Stone surface materials 310

Fired clay 313

Surfaces of earth 315

Bitumen-based materials 316

Plastic surface materials 317

Living plant surfaces 319

Planted roofs 320

Wall cladding with plants 324

Indoor plants 325

Timber sheet materials 325

Roof covering 328

Timber cladding 332

Wooden floors 335

Natural rubber (latex) 338

Wood-based boards 338

Grass materials 340

Roofing and wall cladding with grasses 341

Grass boarding 343

Soft floor covering of linoleum 345

Boarding from domestic waste 346

Carpets and textiles 346

Wallpapers 348

References 355

16 Windows, doors and stairs 357

Windows and doors 357

Glass and methods of installation 358

Timber windows 361

Timber doors 362

Plastic and aluminium windows and doors 364

Stairs 365

References 367

17 Fixings and connections 369

Mechanical fixings 369

Timber 370

Metal 371

Chemical binders 372

Mortars 372

Adhesives and fillers 373

References 380

18 Paint, varnish, stain and wax

381

Conditions for painting

388

The main ingredients of paint

388

Binders

388

Solvents

388

Pigments

389

Other additives

392

Paints with mineral binders

393

Lime paint

394

Silicate paints

396

Cement paints

396

Paints with organic binders

396

Synthetic paints and varnish

396

Animal glue paint

398

Vegetable oils

400

Tar

402

Natural resins

402

Starch paint

403

Cellulose products

403

Stains

404

Beeswax

406

Green soap

406

References

407

19 Impregnating agents, and how to avoid them 409

Choosing high quality material 410

Structural protection of exposed components 411

Methods of passive impregnation 412

Methods of active impregnation 415

References 418

Further reading for part three 419

Index

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