The paper and pulp industry produces large volumes of waste sludge, primarily as a result of processes such as de-inking wastepaper and wastewater treatments. This sludge, though it is often just sent to landfills, is rich in fibre. Even if fibre lengths are shorter than in normal cellulose fibre, it has been shown that it can replace 20 to 50% of the fibre reinforcing in fibre-cement composites without reducing the resultant product strength (Modolo et al., 2007). Sludge fibres can therefore probably also be useful in other composite materials, for example with bioplastics used as binder.
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