Solid timber floors are usually tongued and grooved, and used in thicknesses of 15-28 mm.They are preferably laid with the hardest wearing pith side upwards.There are two main principles for laying floors: the floating and the nailed floor.
In a floating floor the floorboards are glued together along the tongues and grooves.The floor lies free from the walls, and is held down by strong skirting boards. This method reducesthe chance of recycling as it is difficult to remove the floor without damaging or breaking it.
In the nailed floor the floorboards are fixed to the joists with nails and no glue. To make re-use easier, the nails should be nailed through the boards from the top and straight down.This is, however, seldom done.
Batten ffooringisa mixture ofthefirst two methods (see Figure15.28). Here, thefloor-boards are locked into position by battens of hardwood. Re-use possibilities are very high. This floor can be laid without being dried in a chamber drier, because it is easy to move the boards closer together later on by loosening the battens. Unlike other timber floors, in batten flooring individual floorboards can easily be changed.
Parquet. The material normally used for parquet flooring is hardwood such as oak and beech. Birch and ash can also be used.These are sawn into long boards of 50 to 130 cm or short boards of15 to 50 cm, and are tongued and grooved.The short board is normally 14 to 16 mm thick; the long board is 20 mm thick.The breadth varies from 4 to 8 cm. A number of laminated parquet floors have a top layer of hardwood 4 to 6 mm thickglued onto a softwood base of chipboard. Urea-formaldehyde glue is usually used for this. Parquet flooring is nailed or glued directly to the floor structure oronto a floor base. It can also be laid with bitumen-based glue onto a concrete floor oronto battens in a sand base.
Timber cubes are usually rectangularand placed on an underlay with the grainfac-ing upwards. Spruce, pine or oak can be used. This type of floor is comfortable to walk on and it effectively suppressesthe sound of steps. It is hard-wearing, and very suitable for workshops. It is easy to repairand tolerates alkalis and oils, but expands in response to damp and water and should not be washed heavily. The cubes are usually 4 to 10 cm high.The proportion of length to breadth should not exceed 3:1. Off-cuts from a building site can be used.The cubes are laid in sand, and the joints are filled with cork or sand and then saturated in linseed oil. On industrial premises it is usual to dip them in warm asphalt before setting them.
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