What is exergy Different interpretations of the exergy concept

Exergy is not conserved unless entropy-free energy is transferred which implies that the transfer is reversible. All processes in reality are, however, irreversible, which means that exergy is lost (and entropy is produced). Loss of exergy and production of entropy are two different descriptions of the same reality, namely, that all processes are irreversible, and we unfortunately always have some loss of energy forms which can do work, to energy forms which cannot do work (heat at the...

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The energy amplifier ratio, R is defined as the ratio of output B to control flow C. It means that R 10 in this case (from J0rgensen, 2002b). Fig. 7.17. The energy amplifier ratio, R is defined as the ratio of output B to control flow C. It means that R 10 in this case (from J0rgensen, 2002b). where the generalised flow or the ecoflow, indicated as (dNk dt), is multiplied with the specific useful work, i.e. (DGk Nk), simply seems to be a conversion to solar energy equivalents of the...

Chemical equilibrium chemical affinity and standard energies of biochemical reactions Function of dissipation

The classic thermodynamics has introduced two more energy-based functions, named the work function, A, and the Gibbs free energy, G. They have been introduced because it is desirable to obtain criteria for thermodynamic equilibrium under practical conditions, which means that the temperature is approximately constant in addition to either constant volume in bomb calorimeters or constant pressure in chemostates. Most chemical processes in the laboratory or in organisms are carried out at...

Ecosystem as a biochemical reactor

The fuel of ecosystems is organic matter, detritus. It is therefore relevant to calculate the free energy of dead organic matter. The chemical potential of dead organic matter, indexed i 1, can be expressed in classic thermodynamics (e.g. Russel and Adebiyi, 1993) as The difference x1 Mi is known for detrital organic matter, which is a mixture of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The enthalpy values in Table 2.2 could be applied. Approximately 18.7 kJ g are applied for the free energy content...

Thermodynamics of vegetation

On the far planet Venus, Where the gold of Sun is more flaming, Trees have blue 10.1. Introduction. Energetics of photosynthesis Organic matter in the biosphere has appeared as a result of the activity of autotrophic organisms. They represent a unique group that is able to synthesise organic matter from inorganic. While creating organic matter, they use either the energy of solar radiation (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (chemosynthesis). Photosynthesis, which is the prevailing process,...

Simple statistical models of biological communities

If we look at the titles of many thermodynamics textbooks we can see that almost all of them are named Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics. And this is not surprising since this pair represents two sides of one coin. Today both disciplines are considered as the analysis of complex systems properties from the physical point of view. However, the way that they look at the object of their study, a system, is different. Thermodynamics considers a system as some black box, i.e. only inputs and...

Teleology and extreme principles a tentative Fourth Law of Thermodynamics

Conflict Between Gibbsian Thermodynamics

All is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. Teleology is a lady no biologist can live without, but whose company seems shameful It does not seem that we are living in an ordered world, and nature is not an exception to this, but we wish to live in such a world, which is close to the Hellenistic one. Its Aristotelian philosophy of life was teleological and deterministic in principle a different form of philosophy was scarcely thinkable in the well-ordered Graeco-Roman society in its...

Pr0 c0Xc072

Ecosystem Lake

Since the inorganic component, c0, is very dominant at thermodynamic equilibrium, then c0 gt gt Xn 1 c0, and expression 7.2 can be approximated as As a result of the combination of Eqs. 7.1 and 7.3 , we get The equilibrium constant for the process describing the aerobic presence of oxygen decomposition of detritus at 300 K can be found based upon the above-mentioned values. We could presume that the detritus molecular weight is about 100,000 more accurately 104,400 Morowitz, 1968 and its...