And Methods I Trophic Chains 153

7.1 Introduction 153

7.2 General thermodynamic model of ecosystem 154

7.3 Ecosystem's organisation: trophic chains 159

7.4 Dynamic equations of the trophic chain 163

7.5 Prigogine-like theorems and the length of trophic chain 165

7.6 The closed chains with conservation of matter. Thermodynamic cost of biogeochemical cycle 169

7.7 Complex behaviour: cycles and chaos 174

7.8 What kind of exergy dynamics takes place when the enrichment and thermal pollution impact on the ecosystem? 177

7.9 Embodied energy (emergy) 182

7.10 Summary of the ecological important issues 186

CHAPTER 8: MODELS OF ECOSYSTEMS: THERMODYNAMIC BASIS AND METHODS. II. COMPETITION AND

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