For instance, for a virus genome the length of amino acids sequences is n = 103. Since

1 AAA 1

the number of different amino acids is equal to 20, t0 = tX 20 < tX 10 , and the evolutionary time is enormous. If the "Meccano" principle is working, and R = 20, r = 5, then the time is very small: tc = T(ln 1000/ln 5) X 205 < tX 5 X 108. For the human genome n = 7 X 109, and the evolutionary time increases insignificantly: tc = T(ln 7 X 109/ln 5) X 205 < t X 1.5 X 109. Therefore, the real differences between evolutionary times are explained by other reasons. The rate of evolutionary perfection is so high that it does not determine the direction of evolution. In this case the use of the "thermodynamics paradigm" is correct, and everything is determined only by the initial and final states of the evolving system. As a result, the evolution is strictly determined, i.e. the evolving system is moved from "molecules towards Homo sapiens" along deterministic, not random, trajectories. Note, however, that this is true only if the "constructor" algorithm exists in Nature.

In a certain sense a reality of the algorithm is evident: sexual recombination, crossover, transduction and other such processes are, generally speaking, a shuffling of ready-made blocks of genes. But biological evolution, i.e. properly, life, begins when molecules originate that are able to perform matriX convariant reduplication, i.e. to reproduce (Timofeev-Resovsky, 1961b). Unfortunately, we do not know even the chemical characters of these molecules. These could be spontaneously originating short sequences of RNA since RNA possesses catalytic properties. Recently, it was shown that there are short (r < 5) universal blocks in polynucleotides and polypeptides chains (Shnol, 1989).

Was this article helpful?

0 0

Post a comment