Trophic Level 189

8.1 Introduction 189

8.2 Thermodynamics of a competing community 189

8.3 Community trajectory as a trajectory of steepest ascent 195

8.4 Extreme properties of the potential W and other potential functions. Entropy production and Prigogine-like theorem 198

8.5 The system of two competing species 205

8.6 Phenomenological thermodynamics of interacting populations 208

8.7 Community in the random environment and variations of Malthusian parameters 212

8.8 Summary of the ecological important issues 219

CHAPTER 9: THERMODYNAMICS OF ECOLOGICAL NETWORKS . 221

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Topology of trophic network and qualitative stability 223

9.3 Dynamic models of trophic networks and compartmental schemes . . . 225

9.4 Ecosystem as a metabolic cycle 227

9.5 MacArthur's diversity index, trophic diversity and ascendancy as measures of organisation 229

9.6 How exergy helps to organise the ecosystem 233

9.7 Some dynamic properties of trophic networks 235

9.8 Stability and reactions of a bog in the temperate zone 238

9.9 Summary of the ecological important issues 241

CHAPTER 10: THERMODYNAMICS OF VEGETATION 243

10.1 Introduction. Energetics of photosynthesis 243

10.2 Thermodynamic model of a vegetation layer. Fluxes of heat, water vapour and other gases 244

10.3 Energy balance of a vegetation layer and the energy efficiency coefficient 249

10.4 Thermodynamic model of vegetation: internal entropy production ... 250

10.5 Vegetation as an active surface: the solar energy degradation and the entropy of solar energy 253

10.6 Vegetation as an active surface: exergy of solar radiation 255

10.7 Simplified energy and entropy balances in the ecosystem 261

10.8 Entropy overproduction as a criterion of the degradation of natural ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure 264

10.9 Energy and chemical loads or how to convolute the vector data 266

10.10 Summary of the ecological important issues 269

CHAPTER 11: THERMODYNAMICS OF THE BIOSPHERE 271

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Comparative analysis of the energetics of the biosphere and technosphere 273

11.3 Myth of sustainable development 276

11.4 Thermodynamics model of the biosphere. 1. Entropy balance 277

11.5 Thermodynamics model of the biosphere. 2. Annual increment of entropy in the biosphere 279

11.6 Exergy of solar radiation: global scale 281

11.7 Exergy of the biosphere 287

11.8 Exergy and the evolution 290

11.9 Summary of the ecological important issues 298

CHAPTER 12: TELEOLOGY AND EXTREME PRINCIPLES: A TENTATIVE

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