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Brockmann-Jerosch (1919) Schröter (1926) Leibundgut (1938) Vincent (1938) Rubner (1953) Hermes (1955) Plesnik (1959) Jenic and Locvenc (1962) Ellenberg (1963) Wardle (1964, 1965a) Holtmeier (1965) Hustich (1966)

Müller-Dombois and Ellenberg (1974)

Wardle (1974, 1981a)

Bernadzki (1976)

Braathe (1977)

Kullman (1979 onwards)

Little (1979)

Piussi and Schneider (1985) Timoney et al. (1992) Hofgaard (1997a)

Minimum tree height as criterion is also differently used as far as different tree species are concerned. For example, Aas and Faarlund (1996) require a minimum height of 2.5 m to consider a birch (Betula tortuosa) growing at the upper timberline in northern Scandinavia a tree, while the

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