Replace Toxic Products in your home
Sustainable design to date has largely focused on minimizing and avoiding adverse impacts of the human built environment on natural systems and human health. Important elements of this 'low environmental impact' approach have included energy and resource efficiency, waste minimization, avoidance of toxic products and materials, and protecting and restoring natural systems. This approach is vital and necessary but not sufficient for mending the current 'nature deficit'. In addition, we also require design strategies that foster beneficial contact between people and nature in places of ecological and cultural familiarity and significance. This latter approach can be called 'positive environmental impact' or, for reasons apparent by now, 'biophilic design'. Some specific elements of biophilic design in the built environment include environmental features (e.g., natural materials, natural ventilation) natural shapes and forms (e.g., botanical and animal motifs) natural patterns and...
At the end of this first phase we selected five product categories responding to different qualitative criteria environmental and social impacts of products, existence of alternative propositions in terms of products or behaviours, and favourable attitudes towards change among the participants of the focus groups. Those five categories were washing detergents, electric appliances for textile care, electric kitchen appliances, jeans, and paint for indoor decoration. The participants showed interest in other themes such as food, energy and transport, but we did not make an in-depth study of these themes because they were included in other studies in the same scientific programme.4
Such endocrine-disrupting chemicals are thought to be involved in fertility problems in humans as well as other animals, and especially in fish and other aquatic organisms. They are also implicated in some cancers, such as breast and testicular cancer. Natural estrogens and synthetic estrogens used in hormone treatments and contraceptives are found in sewage effluent. Other endocrine disrupters include tributyl tin oxide, which causes female dog whelks to become masculinized, and certain industrial detergents, which cause male trout to produce vitel-logenin, an egg yolk protein normally produced only by females.
High BOD, grease, floor washing, sugars, flour, and detergents Detergents Cornstarch and detergents Evaporator condensate or bottoms when not reused or recovered, syrup from final washes, and wastes from bottling-up process Washing trinitrotoluene (TNT) and guncotton for purification and washing and pickling of cartridges Washing and purification products such as 2,4-D and dichlorodiphenyl trich-loroethane (DDT) Washing, screening, floating rock, and condenser bleedoff from phosphate reduction plant Unit operations from polymer preparation and use and spills and equipment washdowns Chemical reactions of basic elements and spills, cooling waters, washing of products, and boiler blowdowns Leaks, accidental spills, and refining of chemicals
Specialist herbivores of glucosinolate-containing plants may have high levels of isothiocyanate detoxification activity or employ other strategies to prevent the initial release of toxic hydrolysis products from the ingested plant tissue. An example of the latter strategy has recently been discovered in a lepidopteran specializing on the Brassicaceae. Larvae of the diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella, possess a sulfatase in their gut that hydrolyzes glucosinolates to desulfated derivatives that are no longer substrates for myrosinases. This blocks the formation of any toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products. The sulfatase activity is apparently high enough to desulfate the ingested glucosinolates faster than the ingested plant myrosinases can convert them into toxic products. This detoxification mechanism is not common to all lepidopteran species that feed on Brassicaceae, since sulfatase activity was not detectable in the larvae of several other lepidopteran herbivores that can...
Recent advances in analytical methodology and greater access to analytical standards have allowed for increased research on the environmental occurrence of degradates. Research on pesticides has shown that degradates can be found in surface water, groundwater, precipitation, air and sediment (Boxall et al. 2004b). Although most studies have been on pesticides, degradates from other chemical classes (e.g., pharmaceuticals and detergents) have also been found in the environment. In some cases, degradates were detected as often or more frequently than the parent compound (Boxall et al. 2004b).
Residual organic matter may be effectively removed by contact with activated carbon. Granular carbon in an up-flow pressure tank seems to be most efficient, although adding powdered activated carbon to other chemicals prior to filtration can also be effective. Activated carbon is also effective in removing anionic detergents. However, high ABS concentration exhausts the capacity of activated carbon to remove other organic matter, therefore prior treatment to reduce ABS should be applied.
Slightly more than 100,000 chemicals arc produced in such an amount that they threaten or may threaten the environment. They cover a wide range of applications household chemicals, detergents, cosmetics, medicines, dye stuffs, pesticides, intermediate chemicals, auxiliary chemicals in other industries, additives to a wide range of products, chemicals for water treatment and so on. They are (almost) indispensable in modern society and all fulfil more or less essential needs in the industrialized world, which has increased the production of chemicals about 40-fold during the last four decades. A proportion of these chemicals inevitably reaches the environment either during their production, their transportation from industry to end user, or
An increase in nitrogen availability in water can stimulate or enhance the growth and proliferation of primary producers (phytoplankton, benthic algae, and macrophytes). In nitrogen-limited freshwaters and coastal regions, this enhanced growth of highly competitive species reduces light penetration to the sediment and consequently, slow-growing and sensitive species may decline and disappear. The eutrophication of aquatic environments can result in huge expansive growth of primary producers (Figure 3). Some algal blooms (e.g., Microcystis cyanobacteria in freshwaters and Alexandrium dinoflagellates in coastal waters) are known to release toxic products which attack the nervous system, liver tissues, and cytoskeletons of many aquatic organisms. In addition, the decomposition of this algal organic matter when it dies and sinks to the bottom uses oxygen with greatly increased rates of decomposition, the oxygen content of the water body is depleted. Because of the vast scales of such...
The major input of these compounds is from the combustion of organic material containing chlorine. They may also be found as contaminants in some chlorinated chemical products. Combustion sources include chemical and municipal incinerators, coal-fired power stations and domestic coal fires. Part of the ongoing debate over hazardous waste disposal (landfill, incineration or other means) is centred around the toxic products which may be produced by incineration. The compounds also appear capable of being produced naturally by forest and moorland fires.
To prevent cross contamination, engineers should decontaminate the equipment used for sample collection or pretreatment prior to and after each use. The decontamination should involve a minimum of scraping or brushing to remove any soil or residue from the device, washing with potable or deionized water, washing with detergents or cleaning fluids such as acetone, and pressure cleaning with a high-pressure steam cleaner.
The eye is vulnerable to irritants such as smog, solvents, detergents, and corrosive substances. Other pollutants act systemically and can damage the optic nerve. For example, methanol and carbon disulfide damage the central vision in this way, and pentavalent arsenic and carbon monoxide affect peripheral vision.
If invertebrates have mostly interested specialists of marine pollution, it is well recognized that the phyto-benthos could be very sensitive (or not) to polluted waters. If Phaeophyta are rather sensitive (based on the correlation of the disappearance of Cystoseira amentacea stricta along a gradient of detergents in Marseilles area), Chlorophyta could be rather tolerant and Rhodophyta could have diverse requirements.
The best method for fighting eutrophication is the prevention of anthropogenic addition of nutrients. As a first step, modern techniques can be used to reduce the impact of sewage. For example, fecal material can be composted instead of flushing it into sewage systems. Large-scale efforts have been made to reduce the phosphorus content of domestic detergents or find phosphorus substitutes. The fertilization of agricultural land still presents serious problems, for much time is needed to change old practices, and, even then, improved techniques may have limited effects on the nutrient loading. Thus much of practical water management focuses on the removal of wastewater and wastewater treatment.
Food-grade and feed-grade additives, and detergents. Other marginal applications include metal surface treatment, corrosion inhibition, flame retardants, water treatment, and ceramic production. Despite such widespread use, the latter applications represented only 3 of the total consumption of various phosphates in the 1990s.
See sea lamprey phosphates in detergents, 131 phosphorus, 290 Phragmites australis see common reed phytoplankton biomass, 109-111 composition, 109 interannual differences net production, 112-114 relation to water discharge seasonal changes spatial variation in biomass, 110-111 Piermont marsh, 282, 287 piers
A wide range of nonoxidizing organic and inorganic chemicals are used for, or are able to provide, disinfecting effects, including aldehydes (formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde), phenolics, alchohols (ethanol and isoproponal), cationic detergents, nitrites, and heavy metals (e.g., mercury, silver nitrate, tin, arsenic, copper). Although most of these chemicals have little relevance for the disinfection of waters, wastewaters, or sludges, there are two noteworthy exceptions. Specifically, silver-impregnated filters are sometimes marketed for point-of-use water conditioning devices, such as those that are sometimes screwed onto the outlets of sink faucets. In this instance, the silver is intended to be slowly leached from the filter medium (typically, activated carbon) at a rate that, hopefully, will retard the opportunistic formation of microbial biofilms intent on using sorbed organics as their energy source. A second nonoxidizing chemical disinfectant option is that of using cationic...
Increasing wastewater, the introduction of phosphorus-containing domestic detergents, increasing use of fertilizers, and increased erosion in the watershed are the major reasons for the increased loading of nutrients. The loading of nitrogen is increased by pollution of the atmosphere with nitrous oxides, where they combine with water vapor and are transported to lakes as precipitation, contributing to increased loading of nitrogen. Fertilization of farmland has its greatest effect on nitrogen loading, as phosphorus, unlike nitrogen, is relatively immobile once it is in the soil. However, flooding can transport large quantities of phosphorus, derived from fertilizers, to lakes. Domestic sewage is responsible primarily for increased phosphorus loading. It contains on the average an N P ratio of 4 1 and can lead to a shift from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation (see Section 4.3.7). Estimates of the various components of phosphorus loading in Lake Constance for 1976 show the...
Lower section of the lake received environmentally relevant concentrations of carbon and nitrogen, while the upper section received carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The bright green scum of algae on the surface of the upper lake was the result of the phosphorus additions. This study along with other monitoring studies by Ontario's Ministry of the Environment led Canada to become the first country to ban phosphate detergents. Studies have also been carried out in the ELA on acid precipitation, heavy metals, and the effects of flooding of vegetation as a result of reservoir construction. More recently, studies have been undertaken to measure the effects of ethynylestradiol on fathead minnow and pearl dace populations (see the section on 'endocrine disruption').
Monooxygenases are cytochrome P450-dependent enzymes that require NADPH and oxygen for catalytic activity. They occur as integral membrane, heme-containing proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and constitute a superfamily of 200 plant enzymes that are involved in the biosynthesis of several groups of natural products, including flavonoids, as well as the detoxification of xenobiotics and herbicides into non-toxic products. Several reviews have dealt with their nomenclature, classification, biochemistry, molecular biology, and functional roles.15 18
Research on ageing has also provided a few other solutions to life extension which are not quite so technological. Calorific restriction (while avoiding malnutrition) has also been found to extend the lifespan of a wide range of animals including rats, fruit flies, and nematodes.106 The mechanism by which caloric restriction extends lifespan is unclear, and it is even possible107 (at least in fruit flies) that it extends longevity by reducing death rate rather than postponing senescence per se. One hypothesis is that dietary restriction slows metabolism, thereby slowing the production of toxic products such as ROS, but it may in part be linked back to reproduction if poorly fed individuals are not reproductively active. Of course, even if the same phenomenon were firmly established to hold for humans, it is questionable whether many people would want to take this course of action. We should also stop to think about the fundamental ethical, social, and ecological implications if we...
Human intensification of biospheric P flows is due to four major processes. Accelerated erosion and run-off due to land use changes now liberate annually more than 20Mt P in excess of the natural loss. Recycling of crop residues returns 1-2Mt P to arable soils, and animal manures return up to 8Mt P every year. The global population of 6 billion people discharges every year about 3Mt P in its wastes in low-income countries a large share of this is deposited on land, but urbanization puts a growing share of human waste into sewers and then into streams or water bodies. Since the 1940s, P-containing detergents have added another major source of waterborne P.
For biological analysis, collected soil must be handled on a clean bench space and with clean or sterile equipment. Cysts and spores of soil protists and some bacteria are resistant to desiccation, but also to a variety of detergents and disinfectants. Thus, contamination of samples from laboratory surfaces is easy without sufficient care. Moreover, cysts and spores in spilt air-dried soil can be disturbed and carried in the laboratory air. Once airborne, contamination of soil isolates and cultures is more frequent. Cysts of colpodid ciliates are notorious invasive colonizers, and they can be isolated from sinks and floors of most soil laboratories. They are the most common protozoan culture contaminant in cell biology laboratories. Often, the laboratory space is shared with bacteriologists who apply sterile techniques, or with invertebrate or plant biologists who do not. Clean work habits are the best deterrent to permanent contamination problems.
Concentrations in several species of Piper, particularly P hispidinervum. This propenylphe-nol and its derivatives have been used successfully in powerful insecticides, as well as in fragrances, waxes, polishes, soaps, and detergents. Thus, P. hispidinervum has been cultivated for high levels of safrole and could contribute significantly to tropical economies and conservation efforts (Rocha and Ming 1999). A recent example that typifies the search for insecticidal properties of Piper amides is the work of Yang et al. (2002), in which the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of a piperidine amide (pipernonaline, extracted from P. longum infructescence) against Aedes aegypti mosquito larvae. This insecticidal activity has potential human importance because these mosquitoes are vectors for yellow fever. The most extensive review of Piper phytochemistry (Parmar et al. 1997) summarizes the bioac-tivity of Piper chemistry, and most examples are medicinal or pesticidal. The most common uses...
Wet oxidation can render plastics, detergents, insecticides, and other nonbiodegradable materials compatible with conventional sewage treatment processes. When the waste contains both paper and plastic material, these need not be separated because both are decomposed at the same reaction temperature.
There is a delicate balance between water conservation and sanitation, with no straightforward or simple formula for the least water use. Each process must be evaluated with the equipment used to arrive at a satisfactory procedure for water use, chlorination, and other factors, such as detergents.
95 of organisms in the area of a spill or leak. Oil coats surface organisms and may also coat benthic or bottom-dwelling organisms. Wave action and currents spread oil horizontally, mixing hydrocarbons with water. Even after external manifestations are gone, oil may still be found in the organisms. Bacteria detoxify poisons in the oil, but they influence the least toxic products first, rendering the remaining oil more poisonous than before.
Direct mud-rotary drilling is a drilling method in which a fluid is forced down the drill stem, out through the bit, and back up the borehole to remove the cuttings as shown in Figure 9.15.2. The cuttings are removed by settling in a sedimentation tank or pond, and the fluid is circulated back down the drill stem. The drilling fluid can be a liquid, such water or mud (water with special additives, e.g., bentonite and polymers), or it can be gas, such as air or foam (air with additives, e.g., detergents) (Davis, Jehn, and Smith 1991).
Reducing the indiscriminate use and disposal of fertilizers, pesticides, oil and gasoline, and detergents is a frequently overlooked measure for reducing stormwater runoff pollution. Tree spraying, weed control, municipal fertilization of parks and parkways, and homeowner use of pesticides and fertilizers can be controlled by increasing public awareness of the potential hazards to receiving waters. Direct dumping of chemicals and debris into catch basins, inlets, and sewers is a significant problem that can only be addressed through educational programs, ordinances, and enforcement.
Allelopathy occurs in the Louisiana Delta country when broomsedge grass grows among red oak, cherrybark, and sweetgum trees. There, foliar and root extracts of the low-quality grass detrimentally affect some species. Sweetgum appears to be excluded from these sites because of salicylic acid leached from cherrybark oak crowns by rain. This chemical is tied so loosely in foliage that it can be leached with cold water. Toxic products are also released by the action of microflora in the decay of their own roots.
Untreated domestic sewage consists mainly of waste water and solids from toilets, sinks and drains, which includes detergents (often containing phosphorus), other chemicals and plastics (e.g. from panty liners). Industrial waste is also dumped into sewers and oil and run-off from road systems may enter from storm drains. Raw sewage discharged into the sea may therefore contain large quantities of metals such as arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury and lead as well as organic matter, petroleum products, fats, solvents and dyes. Thus there is considerable potential for human health risk and for ecological damage when untreated sewage is discharged into the sea. Currently over 80 per cent of Britain's large coastal discharges (serving more than 10 000 people) receive no treatment or are just screened. Hopefully this situation is changing as new legislation comes into force (see Section 10.1.4).
Arsenic is present in some detergents and was widely used in pesticides and herbicides until at least the 1960s. In seawater it exists mainly as arsenate but a proportion becomes converted to the more highly toxic arsenite. Arsenic compounds are readily concentrated in the tissues of certain marine fish.
Unusual bonds or bond sequences, for example, tertiary and quaternary carbon atoms. In this regard much has been learned from the detergent industry. When alkyl benzyl sulfonates (ABS) detergents were first manufactured and used by consumers worldwide, it was not realized until much later that these compounds persisted in the environment. Their persistence in the lakes and rivers led to foaming of water and causing damage to the environment. Later on public concern forced detergent industry to investigate the cause of such persistence. Researchers quickly found that extensive methyl branching interfered with biodegradation process. Thus, switching to linear ABS detergents that were more easily biodegraded alleviated this problem (Table 1). Methyl branching is also associated with persistence of aliphatic hydrocarbons. The nonbranched alkanes are easily biodegraded in the environment than alkanes having multiple methyl branching. Table 1 Chemical structures of nonlinear and linear...
Highly insoluble products and also it readily adsorbs to clay. If the load of phosphorus is not increased artificially by anthropogenic influences (wastewater, detergents), lakes usually receive more nitrogen than phosphorus in the surface and ground water. In unpolluted lakes phosphorus is more often the limiting factor for plant growth than nitrogen.
Healthy Chemistry For Optimal Health
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