Contents

1 Importance of Tropical Forests 1

1.1 Functions of Tropical Forests 1

1.2 Economic 1

1.2.1 Forest Products 1

1.2.1.2 Fuelwood 3

1.2.1.3 Non-Timber Forest Products 4

1.2.2 Ecotourism 9

1.3 Environmental Services 9

1.3.1 Reserve for Biodiversity 9

1.3.2 Regulation of Climate 10

1.3.2.1 Local Effects 10

1.3.2.2 Global Effects 12

1.4 Social 14

1.4.1 Subsistence for Local Populations 14

1.5 The Need for an Integrated Approach to Forest Conservation and Management 16

2 Characteristics of Tropical Forests 19

2.1 Characteristics Relevant to Management and Conservation 19

2.2 High Diversity 19

2.2.1 Latitudinal Gradients of Species Diversity 21

2.2.1.1 The Latitude Effect 22

2.2.2 Effects of Elevation on Species Diversity 24

2.2.3 Effects of Soil Fertility on Species Diversity 25

2.2.4 Influence of Stress on Species Diversity 26

2.2.4.1 Other Factors Influencing Diversity 26

2.2.5 Theories to Explain High Diversity in the Tropics 27

2.2.6 Benefits of High Diversity 30

2.2.6.1 Defense Against Pests and Diseases 30

2.2.6.2 Complementarity 32

2.2.7 Implications of High Diversity for Forest Management 34

2.3 Reproductive Ecology of Tropical Trees 35

2.3.1 Timing/Frequency of Flowering and Seed Production 35

2.3.2 Modes of Reproduction of Tropical Trees 36

2.4 Species Interactions in the Tropics 37

2.5 Energy Flow 40

2.5.1 Delineation of the Tropics 40

2.5.2 Primary Production 41

2.5.2.1 Production Patterns Within the Tropics 43

2.5.3 Light Environment of Tropical Forests 46

2.5.3.1 Availability of Light 47

2.5.3.2 Responses of Plants to Light 48

2.5.3.3 Light Distribution in the Forest 49

2.5.4 Herbivory 50

2.5.5 Decomposition 51

2.6 Nutrient Cycling 53

2.6.1 Cycling Rates in the Tropics 53

2.6.2 Leaching and Weathering 57

2.6.3 Nutrient-Conserving Mechanisms 58

2.6.3.1 "Direct" Nutrient Cycling 58

2.6.3.2 Concentration of Roots Near the Soil Surface 61

2.6.3.3 Nutrient Storage in Wood Biomass 63

2.6.3.4 Other Nutrient-Conserving Mechanisms 65

2.6.3.5 Role of Soil Organic Matter in Nutrient Conservation 67

2.6.4 Effects of Disturbance on Nutrient Stocks in the Soil 68

2.6.4.1 Implications for Forestry 73

2.7 Conclusion 73

3 Classification of Tropical Forests 75

3.1 Classification Based on Forest Structure 75

3.2 Classification Based on Forest Function 78

3.2.1 Climatic Classifications 78

3.2.1.1 Functional Variation Along Climatic Gradients 82

3.2.2 Classification Based on Species 83

3.2.2.1 Classification at the Community Level 83

3.2.2.2 Classification Based on "Temperament" of Species 85

3.2.2.3 Classification Based on Successional Stage 86

3.2.3 Forest Classification Based Upon Soil Nutrient Status 88

3.2.3.1 Implications for Management 89

3.2.3.2 The UNESCO Classification System 90

3.3 Conclusion 96

4 Deforestation in the Tropics 97

4.1 Rates of Deforestation 97

4.2 Causes of Deforestation 100

4.2.1 Proximate Causes of Deforestation 100

4.2.1.1 Expansion of Agriculture 100

4.2.1.2 Wood Extraction 103

4.2.1.3 Development of Infrastructure 103

4.2.2 Underlying Causes of Deforestation 104

4.2.2.1 Economic 104

4.2.2.2 Political and Institutional Factors 107

4.2.2.3 Technological 112

4.2.2.4 Cultural 112

4.2.2.5 Demographic 113

4.2.3 External Debt and Deforestation 114

4.3 Effects of Deforestation 115

4.3.1 Environmental Effects of Deforestation 115

4.3.2 Social and Economic Effects of Deforestation 117

4.3.2.1 Effects on Indigenous Peoples 117

4.3.2.2 Effects on Traditional Rural Peoples 123

4.3.2.3 Effects on Recently Arrived Rural Peoples 125

4.3.3 Benefits and Costs of Deforestation at the International and National Levels 129

4.3.3.1 International 129

4.3.3.2 National 129

4.4 Conclusion 129

5 Management of Tropical Forests 131

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Natural Forest Management 131

5.2.1 Sustainable Forest Management 133

5.2.2 Systems Used in Management of Natural Forests in Tropical Regions 134

5.2.2.1 Natural Regeneration Systems 134

5.2.2.2 Partial Clearing Systems 137

5.3 Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) 139

5.4 Ecological and Economic Feasibility of Methods of Management of Natural Tropical Forests 142

5.4.1 Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management 143

5.4.2 Certification of Forest Management 144

5.4.3 Obstacles to Sustainable Forest Management 146

5.5 Management of Secondary Forests 146

5.5.1 Techniques for Management of Secondary Forests 148

5.6 Management for Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) 150

5.7 Is Forest Management Compatible with Conservation of Biodiversity? 154

5.7.1 Effects of Forest Management on Wildlife 157

5.8 Reserves 158

5.8.1 Setting Priorities 160

5.9 Conclusion 161

6 Plantations and Agroforestry Systems 163

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Plantation Forestry: Alternative to Supplying the World's Timber Demand? 163

6.2.1 Plantation Productivity 166

6.2.2 Sustainability of Forest Plantations 170

6.2.3 Plantations of Native Tree Species 171

6.2.4 Mixed Species Plantations 176

6.2.5 Plantations and the Conservation of Biodiversity 183

6.2.6 Plantations in the Landscape 184

6.2.7 Plantations as a Tool for Economic Development 184

6.3 Agroforestry 189

6.3.1 Most Frequently Used Agroforestry Systems 190

6.3.2 Functions of Agroforestry Systems 197

6.4 Restoration of Degraded Tropical Forest Ecosystems 199

6.4.1 Recovery of Degraded Forests 200

6.4.1.1 Enrichment Planting of Degraded and Secondary Forests 200

6.4.2 Rehabilitation of Degraded Pasture and Cropland 205

6.4.2.1 Recovery of the Soil's Productive Capacity 205

6.4.2.2 Restoration of Areas Invaded by Aggressive Vegetation 207

6.4.2.3 Recovery of Biodiversity in Degraded Lands 210

6.5 Conclusion 215

7 Approaches for Implementing Sustainable

Management Techniques 217

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 Top-Down Development 218

7.2.1 Top-Down Conservation Planning 220

7.3 Bottom-Up Development 223

7.3.1 Participatory Action 223

7.3.2 A Case Study of Participatory Action Research and Development 224

7.3.2.2 Case II: Porto de Moz: Where PAR Succeeded 228

7.4 Community Forestry 230

7.5 Globalization 238

7.5.1 Globalization and Forest Resources 24O

7.5.2 Case Study of Globalization 241

7.6 Locally Centered Development and Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) 243

7.7 Importance of Scale in Efficiency of Production 247

7.8 Conclusion 249

8 Conclusions 25l

8.1 Introduction 25l

8.2 Tropical Forest Classification 252

8.3 Tropical Deforestation 252

8.4 Management of Tropical Forests 252

8.5 Plantations and Agroforestry Systems 253

8.6 Political and Economic Development Strategies for Sustainable Forest Development 254

References 255

Subject Index 28l

0 0

Post a comment