Effects of Forest Management on Wildlife

Wildlife is affected by logging in many ways. The direct effects of timber extraction on wildlife depend on the intensity and frequency of logging and the species involved. Some species, such as certain insectivorous birds, can disappear completely after a single intervention (Bennett 2000). Many species such as primates and hornbills decline in numbers, whereas populations of other species such as browsing ungulates can increase due to the rapid growth of browse as the canopy is opened. Secondary effects of logging can also include increases in hunting due to the opening of roads and increases in human populations depending on bush meat as a protein source.

Particularly important to the long-term survival of the forest are any impacts that logging can have on some of the mutualisms that may exist between plants and animals. Forest animals may act as seed dispersers, and if their populations are altered due to logging or increased human intrusion, the reproduction and survival of tree species may be endangered. An exam-

Table 5.3. Number of sightings of mammalian fauna at the study sites in the Caribbean lowlands of Costa Rica over a 6-month period (Guariguata et al. 2000)



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