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Monsoonal

Monsoon adapted

Swelling-type clays

Grummusol

Vertisol

Vertisol

Most diagrams of nutrient cycles do not reflect the direct transfer from organic matter on the surface through mycorrhizae and decomposers into roots. Nutrients are assumed to move from decaying organic matter into the mineral soil, where they are held until taken up by roots of plants or leached into groundwater or streams. Incorporating the direct pathway in diagrams of tropical forest ecosystems is important, as in Fig. 2.9. The arrows through the soil biota emphasize a critical link in the cycle, a link that can easily be broken.

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