Main climatic Superhumid to humid climax ombrophilous, ever-

formations green tropical forest and semi-evergreen wet forest Edaphic climax Littoral forest; man-formations grove forest and woodland; freshwater swamp forest and grassland; peat swamp forest; riparian forest; single-dominant forests on certain soils; sclerophyll forest

Humid to sub-humid, Sub-humid to semi-semi-deciduous and arid deciduous deciduous tropical tropical forest forest

Littoral forest; man- Littoral woodland; grove forest and wood-mangrove forest to land scrub; riparian fring-

(less luxuriant); fresh- ing forest and grass-water swamp forest land; sclerophytic and grassland; riparianthorn woodland; forest (often relic deciduous moist for-gallery); evergreen est forest (on moister well-drained soils); sclerophyll forest (sandy terraces, skeletal soils)

Semi-arid deciduous Arid thorn Perarid tropical thorn scrub and desert woodland semi-desert

Littoral scrub; man- Littoral As in the grove woodland to scrub; arid zone, scrub; riparian fring- mangrove but rarer ing woodland and scrub; and grassland; xerophytic riparian poorer semi-desert scrub fringing;

scrub and grassland

Annual insolation

on the ground (kcal/cm2)

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