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Physiographic climax formations

Degraded formations

Submontane forest (locally rich in oaks and laurels, simpler structure than the climatic climax); montane forest (moist); alto-montane forest (wet, misty); alto-montane woodland and scrub (moist)

Subseral secondary forest; disclimax secondary forest; disclimax pine forest to pine savanna (mostly at higher altitude); disclimax grassland (Imperata cylindrica usually common); disclimax karst woodland; disclimax sclero-phytic savanna

Similar to the perhu-mid zone, except for species composition, conifers increase in southern and northern hemispheres, bamboo species become more frequent in the northern hemisphere

Subseral secondary forest; disclimax secondary forest; disclimax savanna; disclimax pine forest, pine woodland or pine savanna (higher altitudes); disclimax karst woodland; disclimax sclerophytic or xerophytic savanna

Similar to the humid zone, but relative effect of exposition and barrier-effect more pronounced

Disclimax xerophytic savanna; disclimax thorn scrub; disclimax semi-desert shrub

Similar to dry zone, As before As before very strong and noticeable effect of elevation, frost occurs regularly even at lower altitudes, particularly in hollows. Creates local dwarf vegetation. Generally more open and scrub-like. Barrier effect very pronounced Disclimax xero- Disclimax Bare phytic thorn scrub; desert disclimax semi-desert

LEGEND Io ol Tabonuco Eg£3 Colorado EÜSiiil Palm

Dwarf

Scale t^i =500m

Fig. 3.6. Map of forest communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Plantations (Adapted from Jordan 1993)

LEGEND Io ol Tabonuco Eg£3 Colorado EÜSiiil Palm

Dwarf

Scale t^i =500m

Fig. 3.6. Map of forest communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Plantations (Adapted from Jordan 1993)

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