Contents

Water Freedom System

Survive Global Water Shortages

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1 Introduction 1

1.1 Historical Background of Ecophysiology 1

1.2 The Tropics 3

1.3 Tropical Forests and Savannas: Their Emotional, Commercial, Ecological and Scientific Importance 5

1.4 The Destruction of Tropical Forest 11

References 14

2 Large-Scale Sensing and Diagnosis in Relation to the Tropical Environment 17

2.1 Approaches 17

2.2 Climatic Relations and Vegetation Modeling 17

2.2.1 The Klimadiagramm 18

2.2.2 Vegetation Modeling

Based on Irradiance and Water Budgets 22

2.3 Remote Sensing Using Radiation 23

2.3.1 Reflection and Absorption 23

2.3.2 Fluorescence 26

2.4 Gas Analysis 29

2.5 Stable Isotope Analysis 33

2.6 Mathematical Tools 42

References 46

3 Tropical Forests. I. Physiognomy and Functional Structure 51

3.1 Separation of Different Types of Tropical Forests 51

3.2 Physiognomy of Different Types of Tropical Forests 55

3.2.1 Tropical Rain Forests 55

3.2.2 Tropical Cloud and Elfin Forests 59

3.2.3 Floodplain Forests 60

3.2.4 Thorn Scrub and Cactus Forests 62

3.2.5 Mangroves and Gallery Forests 67

3.3 Horizontal Structure and Diversity of Tropical Forests 67

3.3.1 Diversity and the Spatial Structure of the Environment 67

3.3.2 Diversity and Plasticity and the Biological Stress Concept .. 69

3.3.3 Diversity and the Chaos of Oscillating Mosaics 73

3.3.4 Diversity and Life Forms 77

3.4 Vertical Structure 84

3.4.1 Irradiance 85

3.4.2 Temperature and Air Humidity 88

3.4.3 Carbon Dioxide 89

3.4.4 Mineral Nutrients 90

References 97

4 Tropical Forests. II. Ecophysiological Responses to Light 103

4.1 Light Responses of Photosynthesis 103

4.1.1 Light-Response Characteristics of Sun and Shade Plants ... 103

4.1.2 The Photosynthetic Apparatus:

Pigments, Enzymes and Nitrogen 107

4.1.3 The Origin of High-Irradiance Stress and General Plant Responses 118

4.1.4 Dissipation of Excitation Energy in the Form of Heat:

The Role of Xanthophylls 121

4.1.5 Damage and Repair of Reaction Centres of Photosystem II:

The Di-Protein 124

4.1.6 Conclusion: Summarizing Mechanisms of Dissipation of Photosynthetic Excitation Energy 125

4.1.7 Dissipation of Excitation Energy in the Form of Fluorescence: A Tool in Plant Ecophysiology 126

4.2 Varying Irradiance on the Forest Floor and in Gap Dynamics 131

4.2.1 The Response to Light Flecks 131

4.2.2 Light Quality: Signalling Functions of Light 136

4.3 Seedlings: Germination, Establishment and Growth 138

4.3.1 Regulation of Seed Dormancy and Germination 138

4.3.2 Growth of Seedlings 139

References 142

5 Tropical Forests. III. Ecophysiological Responses to Drought 149

5.1 Drought in Moist Tropical Forests 149

5.2 Drought in Dry Tropical Forests 151

5.2.1 Leaf Shedding and Hydraulic Architecture 151

5.2.2 Ecophysiological Responses of Plants with C3-Photosynthesis and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) 153

References 162

6 Tropical Forests.

IV. Lianas, Hemi-Epiphytes, Epiphytes and Mistletoes 165

6.1 The Conquest of Space:

Cryptogams and a Diversity of Life Forms of Vascular Plants 165

6.2 Cryptogams 170

6.2.1 Bacteria and Cyanobacteria 170

6.2.2 Bryophytes and Lichens 171

6.3 Lianas, Climbers, Vines and Hemi-Epiphytes 175

6.4 Epiphytes 183

6.5 Mistletoes 188

6.6 Stressors Driving Ecophysiological Adaptation of Epiphytes and Hemi-Epiphytes 191

6.6.1 Light and the Evolution of Plants to Epiphytism 191

6.6.2 Water 195

6.6.3 Mineral Nutrients 210

References 219

7 Tropical Forests. V. Mangroves 227

7.1 Phytogeography 227

7.2 Site Characteristics and Contrasts in Salinity 232

7.3 Morphological Characteristics of the Mangrove Tree Life Form 233

7.3.1 Hypoxia in Inundated Swampy Soils,

Root Morphology and Aeration 233

7.3.2 Hydraulic Architecture and Xylem Sap Flow 236

7.3.3 Vivipary 237

7.4 Exclusion, Inclusion and Excretion of Salt 237

7.5 Photosynthesis 246

7.5.1 CO2-Exchange and Stomatal Conductance 246

7.5.2 Water Use Efficiency 251

7.5.3 High Irradiance, Photoinhibition and Oxidative Stress 253

7.5.4 Interacting Factors: Salinity, Irradiance, Elevated CO2 256

7.6 Nutrition 257

7.7 Aquatic Communities 258

7.7.1 Macroalgae in Mangroves 258

7.7.2 Microbial Mats 259

7.8 Mangroves as Endangered Ecosystems with Numerous Benefits for Man and the Need for their Conservation 259

References 260

8 Ecosystems of Coastal Sand Plains 265

8.1 Restingas 265

8.1.1 Geological History and Vegetation Physiognomy 265

8.1.2 The Nurse Plant Syndrome and Dynamics of Vegetation Islands 266

8.1.3 Ecophysiology of Photosynthesis of Restinga Plants 268

8.2 Salinas 269

8.2.1 Formation of Coastal Salt Marshes and Vegetation Physiognomy 269

8.2.2 Dynamics of Vegetation Islands 275

8.2.3 Strategies of Adaptation of Plants in the Different Vegetation Units 277

References 290

9 Savannas. I. Physiognomy, Terminology and Ecotones:

Why Do Savannas Exist? 293

9.1 Physiognomy and Terminology 293

9.2 Seasonality 304

9.3 The Savanna Problem: Why Do Savannas Exist? 305

9.4 Ecotones 306

9.4.1 Savanna-Forest Ecotone Dynamics 306

9.4.2 Savanna-Desert Ecotone Dynamics:

The Sahel Problem as a Case Story 308

9.5 Productivity 310

References 311

10 Savannas. II.

The Environmental Factors Water, Mineral Nutrients and Fire 313

10.1 The Water Factor 313

10.1.1 Grasses 315

10.1.2 Trees 323

10.2 The Nutrient Factor 335

10.2.1 Nitrogen 339

10.2.2 Phosphorus 344

10.2.3 Biotic Interactions 345

10.2.4 The Aluminium Problem 356

10.3 The Fire Factor 361

10.3.1 The Causes of Fire: Anthropogenic and Natural 361

10.3.2 Pyrophytes 364

10.3.3 Burning by Man: Losses and Gains 365

References 372

11 Inselbergs 379

11.1 Physiognomy 379

11.2 Cryptogams 382

11.2.1 Cyanobacteria 382

11.2.2 Lichens and Mosses 400

11.3 Vascular Plants 401

11.3.1 Diversity and Life Forms 401

11.3.2 Physiological Ecology 401

11.4 Desiccation Tolerance 404

11.4.1 Cyanobacteria 404

11.4.2 Lichens and Bryophytes 404

11.4.3 Vascular Plants 407

References 413

12 Páramos 419

12.1 Summer Every Day, Winter Every Night 419

12.2 The Stress Factor Frost 422

12.3 Life Forms of Páramo Plants 423

12.3.1 Giant-Rosette Plants 423

12.3.2 Other Life Forms:

Tussocks, Cushions, Acaulescent Rosettes, Sclerophylls 429

12.3.3 Cacti 433

12.4 Frost Resistance in Giant-Rosette Plants 433

12.4.1 Afro-Alpine Plants: Freezing Tolerance 433

12.4.2 Andean Plants: Freezing Avoidance 435

12.4.3 Comparison of the Strategies of Freezing Tolerance and Avoidance 435

12.5 Other Stress Factors 438

12.5.1 Water Availability 438

12.5.2 Mineral Nutrition and Carbon 438

12.5.3 Irradiance and Heat 439

References 439

Scientific Name Index 443

Subject Index 449

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