Lichens and Mosses

Lichens (Budel et al. 2000, Fig. 11.18) and bryophytes (Frahm 2000, Fig. 11.19) are important elements of the inselberg vegetation. Their photosynthesis like that of the cyanobacterial crusts (Sect. 11.2.1.2) is also much determined by the frequent

Fig. 11.18 Lichens (Peltula tortuosa) on the rock surface of the granite inselberg at Galipero, Venezuela
Fig. 11.19 Belts of mosses around a vegetation island on the inselberg Pedra Grande at Atibaia, Brazil. Inner zone Campylopus savannarum, outer zone Racocarpus fontinaloides

wetting and drying cycles on the inselberg rocks. Diffusion limitation of inorganic carbon supply for photosynthesis is modulated by the growth form of the lichens and mosses determining the extent and duration of the build up of water films in the thalli after precipitation (Tuba et al. 1996a: Budel et al. 2000; Luttge et al. 2007), and this may effect niche occupation of different inselberg mosses (Luttge et al. 2007). Different moss species may perform characteristic belts around small vegetation islands on inselbergs (Fig. 11.19) but apparently do not differ in their basic photosynthetic capacity (Luttge et al. 2007). A major adaptive trait of these cryptogams for life on inselberg rocks is their desiccation tolerance (Sect. 11.4).

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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