P

Fig. 11.21 Negotiation of the inselberg at Galipero, Venezuela, with heavy equipment

obovatus, see Sect. 6.6.2.3) are found on South-American inselbergs. Bromeliads, like Ananas ananassoides and Bromelia goeldiana, develop the contrasting pheno-types of yellow-reddish fully exposed plants and dark-green shaded plants under the canopy of shrubbery and small forests respectively, as already described for Bromelia humilis (Sect. 4.1.2). On an inselberg in Madagascar, the distribution of three Kalanchoe species with different expression of CAM was found to be related to micro-habitat characteristics: K. campanulata with a very weak CAM capacity in the shade of deep humid gaps performed largely C3 photosynthesis; K. mini-ata in open bush formations showed pronouncded CAM performance; K. synsepala spreading by stolons on the bare rocks showed the strongest expression of CAM (Kluge and Brulfert 2000). On the other hand, C3-photosynthesis is also dominant among vascular plants of inselbergs.

Desiccation tolerance as for cryptogams is a most important adaptation of vascular plants on inselbergs (Sect. 11.4).

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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