obovatus, see Sect. 18.104.22.168) are found on South-American inselbergs. Bromeliads, like Ananas ananassoides and Bromelia goeldiana, develop the contrasting pheno-types of yellow-reddish fully exposed plants and dark-green shaded plants under the canopy of shrubbery and small forests respectively, as already described for Bromelia humilis (Sect. 4.1.2). On an inselberg in Madagascar, the distribution of three Kalanchoe species with different expression of CAM was found to be related to micro-habitat characteristics: K. campanulata with a very weak CAM capacity in the shade of deep humid gaps performed largely C3 photosynthesis; K. mini-ata in open bush formations showed pronouncded CAM performance; K. synsepala spreading by stolons on the bare rocks showed the strongest expression of CAM (Kluge and Brulfert 2000). On the other hand, C3-photosynthesis is also dominant among vascular plants of inselbergs.
Desiccation tolerance as for cryptogams is a most important adaptation of vascular plants on inselbergs (Sect. 11.4).
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