R550 R700

and it is interesting because anthocyanin is an indicator of newly formed foliage before the full development of chlorophyll pigments. A spectroscopic water absorption index uses the localized sensitivity of two major canopy water-absorption features (930-1,040 and 1,100-1,230 nm).

The disadvantage in the analysis of radiation reflection is that clear skies are needed. An alternative is the use of micro-wave radiometry, since micro-waves are not absorbed by clouds. They give information on the heat-radiation of surfaces, which is also much influenced by vegetation.

In principle remote sensing by detection of radiation allows analysis of many vegetation parameters on a large scale, e.g.

• the vegetation density on the land surface according to the leaf area index and the biomass;

the density of plankton in the oceans;

vegetation types and the structure and dynamics in ecosystems; photosynthetic activity and light-use efficiency; biochemical parameters of canopies; the productivity of agricultural and natural ecosystems; phenological cycles of growth; soil moisture; hydrology;

changes by deforestation, fire, storm, erosion, pest infestations and other catastrophic events.

Fig. 2.4 Correlations between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and (A) effective quantum yield of photosystem II (A F/Fm ) and (B) non-photochemical quenching of photosynthetic excitation energy (NPQ) (from Nichol et al. 2006)

Fig. 2.4 Correlations between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and (A) effective quantum yield of photosystem II (A F/Fm ) and (B) non-photochemical quenching of photosynthetic excitation energy (NPQ) (from Nichol et al. 2006)

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Renewable Energy 101

Renewable Energy 101

Renewable energy is energy that is generated from sunlight, rain, tides, geothermal heat and wind. These sources are naturally and constantly replenished, which is why they are deemed as renewable. The usage of renewable energy sources is very important when considering the sustainability of the existing energy usage of the world. While there is currently an abundance of non-renewable energy sources, such as nuclear fuels, these energy sources are depleting. In addition to being a non-renewable supply, the non-renewable energy sources release emissions into the air, which has an adverse effect on the environment.

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