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Kindle Money Mastery

If you have ever wanted to be able to be an author for a living or as a side hobby, this is the online course for you! This course gives you access to all kinds of ebook and materials on how to make the most of the Amazon Kindle Store to make a huge amount of money! You don't need to be a creative genius, spend Hours on end writing, or even know how to use Kindle! All that you have to do is follow the instructions in this course by Stefan Pylarinos. Stefan built this course based on what he does for a living Every Single DAY. This is REAL information that has been perfected in a real business Why would this NOT work for you? This is how Stefan makes his money Why not you? Just think You can make living money writing Kindle books. And you can learn all about how to get started making money with K Money Mastery! More here...

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Amazon Kindle

Amazon.com kindle As thin as a magazine, lighter than most paperbacks, and capable of browsing and downloading books and other content over the air from Amazon's library of more than 230,000 books, the Kindle 2, pictured in Figure 11-11, is a dream-come-true gadget for serious book lovers. Although Amazon's first Kindle was something of a clunker, the new Kindle 2 is a joy to behold and listen to, thanks to a text-to-speech feature that turns any book into an audio book. The 6-inch black-and-white screen is so sharp that you'll think you're looking at ink on paper no wonder they call it E-Ink Books, newspapers, and blogs are downloaded in fewer than 60 seconds, and the Kindle 2 rechargeable battery lasts up to four days with the wireless feature turned on. Turn it off, and you can keep turning the Kindle 2 virtual pages for up to two weeks. What's more, Amazon's free Kindle application for the iPhone allows you to continue reading on your smartphone where you left off, in case you...

Food Webs And Container Habitats The natural history and ecology of phytotelmata

The animal communities in plant-held water bodies, such as tree holes and pitcher plants, have become models for food-web studies. In this book, Professor Kitching introduces us to these fascinating miniature worlds and demonstrates how they can be used to tackle some of the major questions in community ecology. Based on thirty years' research in many parts of the world, this work presents much previously unpublished information, in addition to summarising over a hundred years of natural history observations by others. The book covers many aspects of the theory of food-web formation and maintenance presented with field-collected information on tree holes, bromeliads, pitcher plants, bamboo containers and the axils of fleshy plants. It is a unique introduction for the field naturalist, and a stimulating source treatment for graduate students and professionals working in the fields of tropical and other forest ecology, as well as entomology.

Study Groups and Housing

We studied four captive groups of bonobos. Although each group contained one or more infants or juveniles, younger than 7 years, these are not included in the analyses. Each group contained at least three males, older than 7 years. Although some of these males are only adolescent (Kano 1992), DNA analyses have shown that each of these adolescent males was able to successfully reproduce (Marvan et al. 2006, P Galbusera unpublished data). Three of the study groups contained at least one adult or adolescent male who that mother reared. Except for one mother-daughter pair at Twycross, all females within groups are unrelated. Furthermore, most of the groups had been stable for at least a few years before our study. Table 1.1 is an overview of all adult and adolescent bonobos, their respective ages, relationships and dominance ranks.

The Control of Stem Orientation to Maintain or Restore the Tree Form and Allow Vertical Growth

FIGURE 1.6 Comparison between two main bending processes in a community of saplings in a 750 m2 plot of the tropical rainforest in French Guiana (DBH between 0.02 and 0.05 m) reaction and gravitational curvatures (see Equations 1.3 and 1.4) have been calculated for trunk basal cross sections (0.5 m height), using measurements of geometry (diameter, length, lean), weight (trees were cut and weighed), and maturation strains (Wap's method see 152 ) (Fournier, unpublished data). FIGURE 1.6 Comparison between two main bending processes in a community of saplings in a 750 m2 plot of the tropical rainforest in French Guiana (DBH between 0.02 and 0.05 m) reaction and gravitational curvatures (see Equations 1.3 and 1.4) have been calculated for trunk basal cross sections (0.5 m height), using measurements of geometry (diameter, length, lean), weight (trees were cut and weighed), and maturation strains (Wap's method see 152 ) (Fournier, unpublished data).

Discussion and conclusions

The results discussed here reflect multitrophic communities that are interconnected by random dispersal. The keystone disperser effect also emerges when species in such communities interact via nonrandom dispersal (Amarasekare 2007 P. Ama-rasekare, unpublished manuscript). However, establishing the generality of the keystone disperser phenomenon requires investigations of larger metacommunities containing more complex multitrophic communities. This next step is crucial in developing a theoretical framework for spatial community ecology that can stimulate empirical investigations.

Biophysics Of Sound Production And Acoustic Behaviour

Different species of bushcrickets are found in characteristic biotopes. There are species which usually inhabit bushes or tall herb vegetation. The males of these species often sing from high perches, occasionally even trees emission heights of 1.5 m up to several metres above ground are common. Examples for these species are Ephippiger bitterensis (Busnel et al., 1956), M. marki (Bailey, 1985), T. cantans (Latimer and Schatral, 1983), T. viridissima (Keuper et al., 1985). Other species like Platycleis affinis (Samways, 1976a), Ephippiger discoidalis and Pholidoptera littoralis (unpublished observations from Keuper et al. (1986)) prefer biotopes with lower herbaceous or graminaceous vegetation, where the maximum height for the emission of songs is around 0.6 to 1.2 m. Most of the species described above show a high degree of territorality with aggressive rivalry behaviour between conspecific males (Morris, 1971 Schatral etal., 1984). The mostly woody plants in the biotopes of these...

Example 1 Wedge Clam Data

Figure 2.6 shows a coplot of biomass (labelled as AFD which stands for ash free dry weight) of 398 wedge clams (Donax hanleyanus) plotted against length for six different months (Ieno, unpublished data). The data used in this section were measured on a beach in Argentina in 1997. An initial scatterplot of the data (not shown here) showed a clear non-linear relationship, and therefore, both AFD and length were log-transformed to linearise the relationship. Note this transformation is only necessary if we want to apply linear regression. As an alternative, the untransformed data can be analysed with additive modelling (Chapter 3). The coplot in Fig. 2.6 indicates a clear linear relationship between AFD and length in all months, and it seems sensible to apply linear regression to model this relationship. Due to different stages of the life cycle of wedge clams, the biomass-length relationship may change between months, especially before and after the spawning period in September-October...

Ambush vs cruise foraging

Differences in entomopathogenic nematode foraging strategies can be most easily identified by comparing the ability of infective juveniles to locate mobile versus sedentary insects (Campbell and Gaugler, 1997). More infective juveniles of cruise-foraging species are able to find sedentary hosts compared with mobile hosts and the opposite is true for ambush foragers (Fig. 2.1). Intermediate foragers are similar in their ability to find both types of hosts. By comparing attachment to mobile and constrained individuals of the same insect species, confounding factors associated with host-specific differences in nematode behaviour are reduced. Variation in the time allocated to crawling and standing among species of Steinernema is consistent with variation along a continuum between ambushing and cruising (Fig. 2.1), but all tested Heterorhabditis spp. appear to be cruise foragers. Cruise foragers do not exhibit standing or jumping behaviour, ambush foragers have stable standing periods and...

Hosthabitat Selection

Females from the same cadaver and therefore be in a better position to mate with females when they infect. Lewis and Gaugler (1994) found that male S. glaseri infective juveniles were more sensitive to volatile cues from uninfected hosts than female infective juveniles and that females were more attracted to infected hosts than to non-infected hosts. However, when a population of male and female S. glaseri infective juveniles was exposed to Galleria mellonella, there was no trend for males to infect first (Stuart et al., 1998). S. carpocapsae, an ambush forager, showed no sex bias in early emergers, and in S. feltiae, an intermediate forager, females tended to emerge first (E.E. Lewis, unpublished data). Hetero-rhabditis megidis infective juveniles that emerge early from a depleted host were better host finders, more tolerant of warm temperatures and less tolerant of desiccation than later-emerging infective juveniles (O'Leary et al., 1998). Further research is needed to assess how...

Omics Technologies from Cell to Field

In ecosystems and microcosms, microarray technology would make it possible to access transcriptional profiles of different foraging phases, and link the expression of gene clusters to metabolic responses. Kasuga et al. (2005) have demonstrated the validity of transcriptional profiling under realistic conditions as an ecological tool. Prediction of mycelial network behaviour would be facilitated by rapidly assessing, in situ, the nitrogen status of mycelium in its forest floor habitat. In preliminary work using sand wood microcosms, spatial and temporal mapping of gene expression is allowing investigation of differential expressions in parts of a P. velutina foraging mycelium acting as sources and sinks for nitrogen (Tlalka et al., unpublished).

Pattern of sperm storage

Cook, unpublished observations), the spermatheca has two lobes, the utriculus and lagena (Fig. 3.3). In two noctuids, Diatraea saccharalis (Miskimen et al., 1983) and Trichoplusia ni (Holt and North, 1970), it has been observed that the two sperm types are stored in the different lobes both types move into the utriculus and then apyrene sperm separate and move into the lagena. Sperm numbers in the two parts of the spermatheca are reported for Pseudaletia unipuncta (Noctuidae) (He et al., 1995). These counts show that, although there is not a complete separation of the two sperm types, there is a higher proportion of non-fertile sperm in the lagena than in the utriculus. However, the pattern of separate apyrene storage does not appear to be the rule (Callahan and Cascio, 1963 LaMunyon, 2000). It is not known whether sperm from several males mix in the spermatheca or are stored in layers with no mixing, so that the last male's ejaculate is predominantly...

Evolution of Foraging Strategy

Ancestral Steinernema had low or no standing behaviour and a low frequency of jumping, occupied epigeal habitats, was of medium size and had a low level of attraction to host volatiles and no change in behaviour after host contact (J.F. Campbell et al., unpublished data). The lack of multiple clades with ambush- or cruise-foraging specialization makes it difficult to determine whether or not the suite of behavioural traits associated with each strategy represents adaptations. However, the diversity in Steinernematidae has probably been undersampled and, as new species are described, hypotheses about the evolution of foraging strategy can be further tested and refined.

The Frequency of Bacteriocin Production 221 Colicins

Turnover rate of the carnivore gastro-intestinal tract is significantly faster than that recorded in herbivorous or omnivorous mammals (Hume 1999). The predictions of mathematical models support the observation that the cost of colicin production can result in colicinogenic strains being disadvan-taged when living in hosts with high gut turnover rates (unpublished data). There is additional evidence for the importance of the host environment in determining the likelihood that a strain will be colicinogenic. There are two species in the genus Hafnia (Okada and Gordon 2003 Janda et al. 2005). A collection of Hafnia species 2 strains, isolated from fish, reptiles and mammals from across Australia, was screened for the presence of a bacteriocino-genic phenotype. The results of this screening showed that 4 of the isolates from fish, 64 of the isolates from reptiles and 29 of the isolates from mammals were bacteriocin producers.

How many species and subspecies of elephants are there

The molecular data from both Asian and African elephant populations, although still in early analysis, are already threatening to overturn the traditional systems of classification. At our present level of understanding of the genetics of Asian elephants, there is no support for the subspecies status of the Sri Lankan elephant population (Elephas m. maximus) and its differentiation from those in mainland Asia (E. m. indicus). These studies and unpublished data clearly indicate that several mitochondrial haplotypes found in Sri Lankan elephants are shared with those in the mainland, particularly southern India. On the other hand, there is some support for the differentiation of the Sumatran elephant (E. m. sumatranus) and the Malaysian elephant, although more work needs to be done.

Implications of Selfcompatibility for the Invasion

Heracleum mantegazzianum is fully self-compatible, as indicated by the fact that selfed fruit set was not lower than that of naturally pollinated flowers, and it does not suffer from inbreeding depression at the germination stage (I. Perglova, unpublished results). The study of flowering phenology showed that overlaps between male and female flowering phases allow for geitonogamous (i.e. between-flowers) pollination. This indicates that plants of H. mantegazzianum are probably highly self-fertile if isolated or growing in very sparse populations where pollinators transport pollen within a single plant. This has very important implications for the invasion because even a single isolated plant of H. mantegazzianum, resulting from a long-distance dispersal event, is capable of founding a new population. However, when the species grows in abundant and dense populations, it is likely to produce predominantly outcrossed progeny because of the high incidence of pollinators moving between...

Migration At Other Sites

In other parts of the world, migrating raptors face very different conditions from those encountered in the hot, cloudless climates of the Middle East. In general, the atmosphere contains more energy in tropical regions than at higher latitudes, which enables raptors to migrate in some conditions through the tropics that would ground them elsewhere. For example, at Talamanca in Costa Rica, thermals can form over shallow water in the early morning, which at that time is warmer than the nearby land, enabling soaring raptors to set off earlier in the day. There may also be sufficient updrafts even during rain, enabling some birds to continue migrating in the wet. In Panama, corridors of rising air produce long clouds, and for much of the time raptors fly through the cloud base, taking advantage of the 'thermal cloud streets' that enable them to glide for tens of kilometres at a time. They also use the updrafts created by winds hitting the central mountain spine. Counts at Panama are...

The cytoplasm in speciation via hybridization

The cytoplasmic constitution of hybrids also may affect their fertility. For example, first-generation hybrids between Phlox drummondii and P. cuspidata are almost completely sterile when the former is the egg parent (Levin unpublished.). However, hybrids are about 25 pollen fertile and set some seeds when P cuspidata is the egg parent.

The Southern Bullkelps Durvillaea Antarctica and D willana

Durvillaea is the largest intertidal seaweed in the world. Individuals with a length of greater than 13 m 16 and a mass of more than 80 kg (C. Hurd, unpublished data) have been recorded. This genus can thrive even in the harsh conditions of the wave-swept surf zone. Moreover, it needs at least a moderate wave exposure for the successful establishment at a particular site 14 . The medulla of the blade of D. antarctica consists of gas-filled sacs 14 , which make the whole blade positively buoyant (Figure 3.2C). At low tide, the photosyn-thetically active area can therefore be maximized as the blade floats at the surface while minimizing self-shading 18 . The thickness of the medulla is not uniform but is dependent on a variety of factors such as wave exposure, age, and overall morphology (C. Hurd, unpublished data). The thallus of D. antarctica can consequently be very voluminous at a comparatively low weight.

Conservation and management of the CuCo metallophyte flora

The flora and vegetation of Luiswishi had been studied previously (Malaisse et al. 1999). Seventy-one taxa were listed in 1997. A new survey took place in 2001 to prospect for further metallophytes and discovered a new, unpublished taxon of Chlorophytum (Antheriaceae). Further surveys took place in 2006 and 2007, by which time only 10 of the site was unmined. These surveys confirmed the presence of 42 of the 71 taxa previously recorded, as well as 11 species reported for the first time. It is clear that recent mining activities have destroyed most of the metallophyte vegetation at this important mine site (Fig. 2.4a). Of the 29 species that have disappeared, three are of major concern they were known from only two other sites (Etolie and Sokoroshe mines) where they are endangered. However, recently a small area of the site has been preserved and protected from mining (Fig. 2.4b). Unfortunately, this area does not support the new species. A similar study was made at Tilwezembe, near...

Limits on seed production

Pollen and ovules contribute to the next generation only if they are represented in seeds from the producing plant and plants that import its pollen. Consequently, limits on seed production fundamentally govern population dynamics and reproductive evolution. To date, studies of seed-production constraints have considered two factors pollen receipt, which affects fertilization success, and the availability of maternal resources during seed development, which determines maximum fecundity (reviewed by Casper and Niesenbaum 1993 Ashman et al. 2004). However, analysis of ovule fates exposes a third constraint, ovule limitation (L. D. Harder, M. B. Routley, and S. A. Richards unpublished manuscript), which bears important implications for the evolution of ovule production and mating-system evolution. Before considering these implications, we clarify the conditions that result in pollen, ovule, and resource limitation.

Bacteriocin Diversity

The ecological niche of a bacterial strain may also play a role in determining bacteriocin diversity. Two new bacteriocins, alvecin A and B (Wertz and Riley 2004), have recently been described from genomic species 2 of the genus Hafnia. PCR screening for the presence of alvecins A and B revealed that these bacteriocins were most frequently produced by strains isolated from mammals but were not detected in bacteriocinogenic strains isolated from reptiles (unpublished data). The bacteriocinogenic isolates from reptiles appear to produce several novel, as yet uncharacterised bacteriocins which appear to be absent in isolates from mammals (unpublished data).

Testing For Territoriality

For many animals, territory defense is difficult or impossible to document but patterns of home range overlap can be documented. Such patterns of overlap can often be used to deduce territorial behavior. Table 3.1 gives overlap index results for territorial wolves in northeastern Minnesota (Mech, personal communication, unpublished data), for adult female black bears in North Carolina and in Minnesota that appear to differ in territorial behavior (Powell et al. 1997, Rogers 1977), and for intrasexually territorial stone martens (Martes foina) in Italy (Genovesi and Boitani 1997 Genovesi et al. 1997 Genovesi personal communication, unpublished data).

Mechanisms of Dispersal

Fruits of H. mantegazzianum are elliptical, winged and dispersed mostly by wind, water and human activities. The majority of ripe fruits fall close to mother plants. For plants 2-m high, 60-90 of fruits fall within a radius of 4 m from the mother plant (Nielsen et al., 2005). Clegg and Grace (1974) and Ochsmann (1996) argue that dispersal by wind could be important only over short distances. There is no direct evidence of dispersal by animals, but it can be supposed that adherence to animal skin could only play a role in short distance dispersal. Since at the landscape scale, long-distance dispersal and random events can play a crucial role in the dynamics of plant species, buoyancy can potentially affect the distance the species can reach. Clegg and Grace (1974) and Dawe and White (1979) report an ability to float up to 3 days for H. mantegazzianum, but L. Moravcova (unpublished results) found that 6-month-old fruits sink within 8 h. Such time, nevertheless, is likely to be...

Dengue fever as a classic case study of the impact of urbanization

Figure 4.5 Historical and projected growth in dengue cases and urban population in Bangkok. Population growth serves as a surrogate or indicator of a wide range of social-ecological factors accompanying urbanization. Dashed line represents projected dengue cases assuming current circumstances, such as per capita levels of vector-control efforts, remain constant. Source Wilcox (unpublished) based on historic and projected population size of greater Bangkok and dengue case data for the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health in Bangkok, published in Nisalak et al. (2003). Projected future cases, year 2000 on, were estimated by linear extrapolation from least-squares fitted regression for peak years and trough years as a function of population size. Figure 4.5 Historical and projected growth in dengue cases and urban population in Bangkok. Population growth serves as a surrogate or indicator of a wide range of social-ecological factors accompanying urbanization. Dashed line...

Constraints on the evolution of fighting morphology

Another factor is mating site, which can be divided into four categories (i) both sexes inside gall, (ii) female in gall, but male in fig cavity, (iii) both sexes in fig cavity, and (iv) both sexes outside fig. Fatal fighting is known only for species in categories ii and iii (Vincent, 1991), where males compete within the fig cavity. Small size and precocious development are characteristics of males that enter galls to mate with females (see Figs 4.1 and 4.3) and may be incompatible with fighting morphology. In addition, the spatial distribution of males and time required to enter seeds and mate may not engender sufficient meetings of males to make fighting an economically viable option in such species (Murray, 1987). Male size may also be constrained in syconia that are tightly packed with flowers at the time when the male wasps emerge and search for mates. There is great variation between fig species in the internal architecture of syconia and a large, soldier morphology may...

Limits on seed production and reproductive evolution

Of ovule limitation, which has several implications for reproductive evolution. Recognition of ovule limitation as an error in the allocation of reproductive resources to ovule versus seed production raises intriguing questions about the selection of ovule number that are beyond the scope of this chapter. In addition, identification of the possibility of ovule limitation broadens the variety of expectations for evolution of plant reproduction. The adaptive balance between pollen and resource limitation proposed by Haig and Westoby (1988 also see Ashman et al. 2004) is expected when selfed zygotes and seeds both have poor survival prospects compared with outcrossed zygotes and seeds (Fig. 4.3, point X'). In contrast, when selfed zygotes and seeds both survive relatively well, plants should be completely ovule-limited (Fig. 4.3, point S). Finally, if selfed zygotes survive relatively poorly, but selfed seeds are relatively successful, compared with outcrossed seeds, then the optimal...

Foods Of Least Weasels In North America And Northern Eurasia

In North America, the range of the least weasel extends south of the Canadian border into the northern prairie states and down the Appalachian mountain chain. Here least weasels, still virtually confined to small rodents, share their only resource with many other, more generalist predators. This competition is hard on least weasels, and it means that they are usually scarce except in habitats or at times that are exceptionally good for small rodents (Chapter 10). For example, in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, least weasels are most often captured in orchards, where thick fescue grasses provide superb habitat for meadow and woodland voles (R. A. Powell, unpublished data). In northern Fennoscandia, Microtus voles also dominate the diet of least weasels, occasionally supplemented with bank voles and mice (Korpimaki et al. 1991). By contrast, in primary forest in Poland, bank voles and yellow-necked mice dominate the diet of common weasels (Jgdrzejwski & Jgdrzejwska 1993...

Population Structure Mortality and Flowering

To determine the effect of the size of a plant on its survival, the number of leaves and the length of the longest leaf were used as proxies of plant size in logistic regressions. For populations in the Czech Republic, both factors significantly and positively affected the probability of surviving to the following year. The survival was not dependent on the distance of the tested plant from the nearest neighbour or to the size of its Thiessen's polygon (J. Pergl et al., unpublished). This indicates that survival is similar in the range of habitats studied and does not depend on local conditions. Similar to survival, flowering in H. mantegazzianum appears to be size dependent, which in turn is closely linked to the age of a plant and the time required to accumulate the necessary resources (Pergl et al., 2006 Perglova et al., Chapter 4, this volume). The results of studies in Germany (H ls, 2005) (Fig. 6.4) and the Czech Republic (J. Pergl et al., unpublished) suggest that the trigger...

In Vivo Degradation And Transport Of Glucosinolates

In addition to the toxic mustard-oil bomb that is dependent on tissue disruption, several experiments indicate a safe in vivo degradation of glucosinolates in intact, non-wounded plants. Perhaps the most obvious indication of this process is the release of small amounts of volatile glucosinolate hydrolysis products from intact plants of Brassica and Raphanus species.69 However, this seems to be the only example of an investigation of completely intact plants. An in vivo degradation should require both intra- and intercellular transport systems. Symplastic glucosinolate transport to the myrosin cell in Arabidopsis is possible, as plasmodesmata have been detected between S-cells and myrosin cells, although not with high frequency (J0rgensen LB, unpublished). discussion of in vivo degradation. Svanem et al. extracted both glucosinolates and degradation products in a liquid nitrogen ethanol slush and found that approximately 10 of the fed radioactive phenyl ethylglucosinolate was...

Host Size and Parasite Evolution a Selection Experiment

I performed a mass-selection experiment (F.J. Messina, unpublished data) to test directly the effects of host size on both larval competitiveness and host discrimination in C. maculatus. A response to selection may be expected in this system because earlier experiments confirmed All replicate cowpea-selected lines evolved to resemble populations that have long been associated with large hosts. Larval competitiveness decreased considerably. Mung beans receiving two, equal-aged larvae from cowpea-selected lines frequently yielded two emerging adults (> 60 of all seeds), but lines maintained on mung bean almost invariably yielded only one adult per seed (F.J. Messina, unpublished data). When the host was cowpea, approximately 90 of seeds with two cowpea-selected larvae yielded two adults, but only 13 of seeds with two mung bean-selected larvae did so. There was also a major effect of selection on the body size of emerging adults. Even in the absence of competition (only one larva per...

How Large is the Fraction of Root Respiration

The decline in soil respiration after girdling could be remarkably rapid (Hogberg et al, 2001). When girdling was carried out in August, the time of the year when the C allocation to roots is supposed to be at maximum in northern temperate conifers (Hansen et al, 1997), 40 of the soil respiratory activity was lost in 5 days and 56 in 14 days. These data clearly show that root respiration can account for 50 , or more, of total soil respiration in boreal forests. Ongoing girdling experiments in two other boreal forests support this estimate (Hogberg et al, unpublished Nordgren et al, unpublished). Planned experiments of the same kind, but outside the boreal zone, will determine if the large contributions from root respiration found in boreal forests are exceptional or not.

Energy Economic Example Regressive Effects of an Energy

Figure 14 For the average American household in 2003 (a) expenditures, which total 49300 (b) energy impacts, which totaled 604 million Btu. Source Unpublished calculations by R. Shammin, R. A. Herendeen, M. Hanson, and E. Wilson. Figure 14 For the average American household in 2003 (a) expenditures, which total 49300 (b) energy impacts, which totaled 604 million Btu. Source Unpublished calculations by R. Shammin, R. A. Herendeen, M. Hanson, and E. Wilson. Figure 16 Household energy impact vs. total expenditures. Direct energy is auto and residential fuel and electricity. Total energy direct energy plus energy impact of all other purchases. Source Unpublished calculations by R. Shammin, R. A. Herendeen, M. Hanson, and E. Wilson. Figure 15 2003 household energy impacts for (a) lowest income decile ( 11 500 241 million Btu), (b) highest income decile ( 140 200 1233 million Btu). Source Unpublished calculations by R. Shammin, R. A. Herendeen, M. Hanson, and E. Wilson. Figure 15 2003...

Numerical simulations

In a recent and as yet unpublished paper, Takahashi and Mashima (2004) have shown that STANDING is highly vulnerable to errors in perception, if one does not consider a subdivided population linked by migration, as in Leimar and Hammerstein, but a single well-mixed tribe. On the other hand, they emphasised the success of a strategy which had not been considered before, and in particular is not a member of the 'leading eight'. Its action module is CO, and its assessment module ascribes a bad score, not only to those refusing help to a good player, but to all those who interacted with a bad player (irrespective of whether they provided help or not). Players who have met a bad player are bad and remain so until they are able to redeem themselves by giving to a good player. According to Takahashi and Mashima, it remains still to be checked whether such intriguing strategies can get established in more polymorphic populations.

Evolution of the Translocation and Receptor Binding Domains

Marcescin A, also produced by Serratia marcescens, appears to have a novel translocation domain which has probably diversified to utilize a parallel translocation system or employ a different system in sensitive strains of Serratia (unpublished data). Such species specificity of translocation domains was also observed in alveicins A and B (Wertz and Riley 2004) and klebicins (Riley et al. 2001 Chavan et al. 2005). Similar species-specific diversity is found in their receptor-binding domains. Whereas the associated receptors have been characterized for all colicins, those targeted by CLBs have not been investigated to date. The receptor-binding domains of klebicins C and D have 45 protein sequence similarity to the corresponding domain of colicin D, indicating that these bacteriocins bind to similar proteins in their target species. On the other side of the spectra, the receptor-binding domains of klebicin B, alveicins A and B, and marcescin A are considered to be novel.

Interaction Chemistry Volatile And Diffusible Organic Compounds

When two fungi grow in close proximity, changes in both mycelial morphology and secondary compound chemistry occur, resulting in the formation of characteristic 'barrages' and colour changes in the mycelia of both species. These changes are mediated by up-regulation of genes involved in antagonism (Iakovlev et al., 2004 C.A. Eyre, L. Boddy and H.J. Rogers, unpublished), resulting in production of stress compounds, enzymes and low molecular weight secondary metabolites, in the hyphae and into the surrounding environment. The production of such metabolites by one species may have profound effects on other species in the vicinity, mediating antagonism at a distance or following contact, or leading to attraction or stimulation of growth.

Responses to Hostplant Quality

Performance, in turn, is measured as the fitness of offspring reared on the plant (relative to other potential hosts) summed over the whole life cycle. That is, ideally not only survival, larval development time and final mass (and hence average growth rate) should be measured, but also male and female reproductive success (Nylin et al., 1996b). In the case of the polyphagous comma butterfly, the preferred host plants (the stinging nettle Urtica dioica and the hop Humulus lupulus) rank highly in terms of most of these fitness correlates. Survival is higher, development time shorter, and growth rate higher than on alternative hosts, which are bushes and trees (Nylin, 1988 Janz et al., 1994 Nylin et al., 1996b). This can probably to some extent be explained in terms of 'objective' quality, as the herb U. dioica has higher water and nitrogen contents than the alternative hosts (N. Wedell, N. Janz and S. Nylin, unpublished data H. lupulus not measured). However, a more 'subjective' aspect...

Genomic approaches to identifying QTLs

Array genotyping may be effective for comparisons of related species, even when the array has not been designed to a particular species. In this case SFPs cannot be ordered on a physical chromosome map, but are treated simply as genetic markers in much the same way as AFLPs and RFLPs. Array hybridization with two subspecies of Brassica oleracea, ssp. botrytis (cauliflower) and italica (broccoli), to Arabidopsis arrays reveal thousands of SFPs (unpublished data), and comparisons between more phylogenetically distant taxa may potentially work on a subset of conserved oligonucleo-tide features. A large mapping population from the related species typed with SFPs will order the anonymous markers into linkage groups, resulting in a high density genetic map. Given a known sequence of the reference SFP, the physical map can thus be anchored to the genetic map.

Evolution of Colicin Regulatory Sequences

A comparison of promoter sequences starting from the -35 box through to the start codon of colicins and CLBs reveals few highly conserved regions. The -35 box is most conserved and matches the consensus (5' TTGACA 3') whereas the -10 box shows only 50 match to the consensus (5' TATAAT 3' Fig. 3.8). The LexA-binding box is another conserved element which is followed by T-rich segments, and finally by the RBS (ribosome binding site). Most of the colicin promoters cluster together whereas the CLB promoters are quite divergent. The promoters of colicin A, klebicin B and a newly sequenced cloacin 683 (unpublished data) have a leader sequence between the LexA-binding boxes and the RBS. Interestingly, all these bacteriocins were sequenced from non-E. coli species. Klebicin B and cloacin 683 are expressed by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae respectively, and colicin A was isolated from Citrobacter freundii.

Home range of elephants

The ranging behavior of elephants is obviously strongly influenced by their need for water and forage of a certain type and quality (chapter 5). Much less is known about how movement patterns and home ranges are influenced by social mechanisms such as male dispersal, female philopatry, breeding, and interfamily or intermale competition. We do have a fairly good idea of home range area (varying by two to three orders of magnitude ) and the major ecological determinants of this size. But our understanding of the social determinants of the familiar area of elephant groups is still very inadequate. Part of the reason is the sheer logistics of having to organize and sustain the simultaneous monitoring of a large enough sample of elephant groups over a sufficiently large area and a long period of time. Possibly the most comprehensive monitoring of this type carried out by Rowan Martin at Sengwa in Zimbabwe about two decades ago remains largely unpublished and unavailable to a wider...

Host Plants Other Environmental Factors and Lifecycle Regulation

Within developmental pathways, the choice of host plant can act to fine-tune development time. From optimality, it may be predicted that plants permitting fast growth and short development time should be used when the optimal development time is short. Hence, these 'faster' hosts should be used later in the season. In the comma butterfly, the directly developing generation of adults, which always occurs late in the summer and in addition is always associated with a bivoltine life cycle, is more specialized on U. dioica than the hibernating generation (Fig. 5.4 Nylin, 1988). It is still unclear whether this really results from an innate higher propensity to prefer U. dioica in light-form adults or is an effect of a more drastic seasonal decrease in quality for the alternative hosts, which are trees and bushes rather than herbs, or whether both factors contribute. Experiments to disentangle these factors must be done with the two forms ovipositing simultaneously, when the plants are at...

Ecological Significance Of Fungalfungal Interactions

Mineral nutrient uptake, partitioning, movement and release are also affected by interspecific mycelial interactions. 32P-uptake kinetics of cord-forming bas-idiomycetes was significantly affected by the presence of a competing mycelium (J.M. Wells and L. Boddy, unpublished). Changes in uptake capacity or rate constants were not related to the outcome of the interaction, but probably reflected the ability of species to divert effort preferentially from phosphorus scavenging to territory defence. In some interactions this ability was over-ridden when there was concurrent supply of uncolonized wood resources. There was reciprocal 32P exchange between R. bicolor, P. velutina and H. fasciculare mycelia in soil which, as with carbon, presumably occurred via leakage in the interaction zone. In contrast, labelled mycelial systems of P. impudicus lost 32P only to R. bicolor, and this was only detectable 39 days after 32P supply. In addition to nutrient exchange between mycelia, there was...

Variability in the C Isotopes in Plants Soil and Soil CO2 Efflux in a Boreal ForestA Case Study

Figure 4.6 The < S13C of ecosystem compartments and soil CO2 efflux along a 90-m-long gradient from dry nutrient-poor (0 m) to moister nutrient-rich conditions (90 m) at Betsele, northern Sweden (Hogberg and Hogberg, unpublished). Note that n 8 for each understorey plant species, while the soil CO2 efflux was measured in the field on three occasions, May, June, and August (n 10 replicates per sub-site and occasion). Relevant to the discussion above, the 513C of CO2 respired from root-free soil samples did not differ from that of the SOM (Ekblad, unpublished), while the CO2 efflux in the field, as measured in 2002, was 2-5 o enriched in 13C relative to the SOM (Fig. 4.6). We suggest that this enrichment of the efflux in the field indicates a large influence of the root respiratory component (cf. Ekblad and Hogberg, 2001). Note that the opposing trends in soil CO2 efflux and SOM most likely reflect the fact that 2002 was a dry year the high average S13C of the soil CO2 efflux at 0 m...

Family life and parental behaviour

It seems likely that the avoidance of danger posed by cannibalistic otter males is the main biological advantage of the secretive behaviour of Eurasian otter females about their cubs. 'Natal dens', especially in high-density otter areas, are very difficult to find, and after foraging the female is extremely covert in the way she slips back to the natal den. She is highly secretive then, especially nearby the holt, and when swimming along the coast nearest to the holt she hugs the shore closely, hardly showing herself. During the first months of the cubs' life she spraints almost only in water, not on land, and we found that this applies in freshwater areas as well as along sea coasts (unpublished observations on radio-tracked otters injected with zinc-65, which was detected in spraints see also Jenkins and Burrows 1980).

Competitive and Antagonistic Interactions

We have examined the effects of two white-rot fungi, Hypholoma fasciculare and Resinicium bicolor, on numbers of bacteria near exploratory hyphae (cords) in soil and on numbers of bacteria inhabiting beech wood blocks (Folman, Boddy and de Boer, unpublished results). Culturable bacteria increased slightly, but significantly, in the vicinity of soil mycelia. In contrast, numbers of culturable wood-inhabiting bacteria and total (detected by microscopy) bacteria were considerably reduced after colonization of the blocks by the rot fungi. The fact that not only numbers of colony-forming units but also total microscopic numbers decreased points at a fungal-induced lysis of wood-inhabiting bacteria. In a follow-up study with H. fasciculare we observed that decrease in numbers of wood-inhabiting bacteria was already apparent only a few weeks after colonization of the wood blocks by the fungus.

Variation In Male Songs Between Conspecific Populations

Variation in male courtship songs has been studied also in the virilis group. Hoikkala (1985) analysed male songs of 42 fresh isofemale strains (derived from wild-caught females) of D. littoralis from three localities in Finland and of several laboratory strains from Europe and the Caucasus. The songs of the old laboratory strains differed from each other more than the songs of the fresh strains, but there was no sign of geographical variation in any song trait. A recent study on genetic (48 microsatellites) and phenotypic (male song traits) variation among 15 fresh and 30 older laboratory strains of Drosophila virilis revealed significant geographic variation in male song characters, only PL and IPI being constant among the strains from different localities (unpublished data).

Specific Associations

We observed species-specific effects of the white-rot fungi H. fasciculare and R. bicolor on the bacterial community composition in decaying beech wood blocks, both at the level of bacterial genera and within a bacterial genus (Burkholderia) (Folman, Boddy and de Boer, unpublished results). Since both fungi acidify the wood environment and produce lignolytic enzymes (reactive oxygen species), it was to be expected that the specificity was due to differences in secondary metabolite (antibiotics) production.

Biomechanical Force Instruments

On vegetative swards where the upper stratum offers little impediment to the prehension of leaf, the vertical vector is dominant, but with increasing sward structural complexity, the relative magnitude of the longitudinal and lateral vectors increases 44 . Unpublished data 44 from deer, sheep, and cattle suggests that the relative change in the magnitude of the force vectors, in response to the spatial arrangement of morphological organs, appears to be less significant for smaller bodied animals. There is no comparable data since the individual vectors appear to be independent in the data sets generated by Hongo and co-workers 25,26 . Nevertheless, clarification of the direction of head movement and dominant force vector across animal body size could provide insights into understanding bite procurement. Descriptive observations in the literature suggest that cattle and sheep sever plant material using a backward jerk of the head 73,74 , and deer tear herbage with an upward and...

Variation in S ratti Development

Different wild isolates of C. elegans also vary in their developmental response to environmental conditions. In laboratory assays in which eggs are placed in conditions likely to induce dauer larvae (limited food and dauer pheromone (Golden and Riddle, 1984)), the proportion of larvae that develop into dauer larvae, rather than into non-dauer L3s and L4s, varies between different isolates (M.E. Viney, J.A. Jackson and M.P. Gardner, unpublished observations). The developmental and or sensory basis of this is not known, but is ripe for investigation and is more easily tractable in C. elegans compared with many other species, including S. ratti.

Sample Resolution And Information Obtained

Mately 1 (identical diet Krebs 1989 Litvaitis 1992). During an investigation of carnivore interactions (Litvaitis 1992), the overlap between coyotes (Canis latrans) and bobcats (Felis rufus) was 0.83. Because adult male bobcats are 50-100 percent larger than adult females, male bobcats are able to exploit larger prey and thus may be more similar to coyotes, which are substantially larger than female bobcats. To examine this possibility, samples from bobcats were separated into two classes based on body mass and diet overlap between each size class of bobcats and coyotes was calculated. As suspected, overlap was substantially greater between adult male bobcats and coyotes (0.95) than between coyotes and female and juvenile bobcats (0.78) (Litvaitis unpublished data). This example suggests the benefits of obtaining greater sample resolution and not averaging samples from a population where resource segregation has occurred.

A case study of Raphanus sativus

Colour variation in naturalized populations are being addressed experimentally. The four colour morphs of R. sativus (Plate 2) are determined by two alleles at each of two loci, with Mendelian inheritance (Panetsos 1964 Irwin and Strauss 2005). Yellow-flowered plants express carotenoid pigments and are recessive at both loci (ppww), whereas pink-petalled, anthocyanin-containing forms have dominant alleles at both loci (P_W_). White- and bronze-flowered plants (the latter expressing both carotenoids and anthocyanins) have at least one dominant allele at one locus and are homozygous recessive at the other (ppW_ and P_ww, respectively). Frequencies of petal morphs vary among sites in California (Panetsos 1964 S. Y. Strauss and R. E. Irwin unpublished data). likely to be PpWw than PPWW, PPWw, or PpWW), a result consistent with preferences of pollinators and the large number of yellow flowers in the population. These results demonstrate that bee pollinators strongly prefer yellow morphs,...

Direct Negative Effects On Invertebrates Killing By Basidiomycota

As far as we are aware, there are no reports of epizootics of arthropods caused by Basidiomycota, though there are undoubtedly examples of killing. There is certainly evidence that mycelium of Hypholoma fasciculare can kill Collembola in some situations (T.D. Rotheray et al., unpublished). Mycelium of certain groups of Basidiomycota kill and subsequently utilize nematodes, often producing specialized killing structures, including Pleurotus species (e.g. P. ostreatus, P. cornucopiae and P. tuber-regium which produce droplets of toxin on aerial stalks Thorn and Barron, 1984 Hibbett and Thorn, 1994) Hohenbuehelia species producing adhesive secretory cells on hyphae or conidia (Thorn and Barron, 1984) and some Hyphoderma species producing stephanocysts (previously thought to be dispersal propagules) that are trapping devices (Tzean and Liou, 1993) (the stephanocytes exude a chemical that bonds tightly to the nematode cuticle, and in attempting to pull away the nematode may frequently...

Meet the Exponential Family

We start with some revision on the Normal distribution. Figure 8.1 A shows the histogram of the weight of 1280 sparrows (unpublished data from Chris Elphick, University of Connecticut, USA). The y-axis in panel A shows the number per class. It is also possible to rescale the y-axis so that the total surface under the histogram adds up to 1 (Fig. 8.1B). The reason for doing this is to give a better representation of the density curve that we are going to use in a moment. The shape of the histogram suggests that assuming normality may be reasonable, even though the histogram is

Direct Effects Of Invertebrates On Fungi Mycophagy

Mycelia growing across the surface of soil can be completely destroyed by high intensity invertebrate grazing, but less intense grazing can result in dramatic changes in mycelial growth and activity (e.g. Kampichler et al., 2004 Harold et al., 2005 Bretherton et al., 2006 Tordoff et al., 2006 Wood et al., 2006 Figure 1). Despite the plethora of studies on fungal-invertebrate interactions, only recently has attention turned to saprotrophic Basidiomycota, and then largely to cord-formers (Chapter 1) grazed by Collembola. Mycelial morphology and foraging patterns often change dramatically as a result of grazing, changes varying depending on fungal species (Tordoff et al., 2006 Figure 1), resource status (Harold et al., 2005), grazing intensity (density) and invertebrate (Collembola) species (Kampichler et al., 2004). For example, Folsomia candida had a large impact, Proisotoma minuta often a similar impact, but Protaphorura armata often had little impact (G.M. Tordoff et al.,...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Community Structure

Invertebrates have differential effects on different species of fungi, resulting from different extents and sites of grazing, secretion of various chemicals including antibiotics, and from physical effects. Consequently, they can affect the species balance within fungal communities. For example, Collembola grazing alters the vertical distribution of Marasmius androsaceus and Mycena galopus in spruce (Picea sitchensis) needle litter (Newell, 1984a, 1984b) Onychiurus latus fed preferentially on M. androsaceus in laboratory and field tests caused the restriction of this species to the uppermost litter horizon. In inter-specific mycelial confrontations in agar culture and trays of soil in the laboratory, the balance was shifted in favour of one species over another when grazed by the Collembola F. candida for example, in the absence of F. candida, R. bicolor overgrew P. velutina, whereas with Collembola grazing P. velutina was able to breach the R. bicolor advancing front (T.D. Rotheray...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Physiology And Metabolism

There seems to have been little research performed on effects of invertebrates on Basidiomycota physiology and metabolism, yet such effects are sometimes likely to be large, in view of the dramatic changes to morphology mentioned above. Grazing by F. candida altered the partitioning of 15N added to soil close to the wood inoculum (G.M. Tordoff et al., unpublished) less 15N was transferred to new mycelial growth in grazed systems than in ungrazed systems, presumably related to slower growth and altered mycelial morphology. Changes in extracellular enzyme activity have been noted P. velutina and Stereum hirsutum exhibited differential responses to the presence of the nematode Panagrellus redividus (Dyer et al., 1992). Protease activity increased while esterase and acid phosphotase activities were reduced in P. velutina. In contrast, there was increased protease and acid phosphotase activity in S. hirsutum.

Ecosystem Processes Consequences

Mineralization from extra-resource mycelium of P. velutina growing from woody resources into the bulk soil (G.M. Tordoff et al., unpublished). Nonetheless, nutrient release from conservative mycelial systems of cord-forming Basidiomy-cota is likely to occur during grazing (along with during inter-specific mycelial interactions Chapter 7). Changes in nutrient partitioning within mycelia have the potential to affect the dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of forest floor nutrients.

Class III The Large 10 kDa Bacteriocins

(the zoocin A immunity factor) share common properties with lysostaphin and Epr, respectively, such as (1) the hydrolysis of streptococcal interpeptide crossbridges, (2) a modular structure consisting of an N-terminal M37-like peptidase domain and a C-terminal substrate-binding domain, and (3) Zif, similarly to Epr, resembles a FemAB-like protein that, when expressed in a heterologous host such as S. gordonii (a zoocin A-susceptible species), confers the expected zoocin-resistant phenotype (Simmonds et al. 1996, 1997 Beatson et al. 1998 Liang et al. 2004). Intriguingly, Zif does not appear to alter the glycine-serine ratios of the interpeptide chain (Beatson et al. 1998), and therefore the exact mechanism of immunity to zoocin A remains enigmatic. A more recent and exciting development is the novel observation that the biosynthesis of zoocin A may be influenced by glucose levels, i.e., it may be catabolite-repressed (O'Rourke et al. 2003). In our laboratory, we have recently...

The nature of vegetation change in elephant habitats

Changes in size distribution and damage intensity of Acacia suma trees in each of three surveys at Karapallam in the Biligirirangans in southern India. (From Sukumar 1989a and unpublished data of R. Sukumar and H. S. Suresh 2002.) Changes in size distribution and damage intensity of Acacia suma trees in each of three surveys at Karapallam in the Biligirirangans in southern India. (From Sukumar 1989a and unpublished data of R. Sukumar and H. S. Suresh 2002.)

Fungal Succession And Interactions In Forest Litter A Molecular Approach

Briefly, the methods are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a small part of the fungal genome (usually the ITS region) using fungal-specific primers (White et al., 1990) and DNA extracted from field samples as template. The PCR products, containing a mixture of DNA from many different fungal taxa, are incorporated into plasmid vectors and cloned into bacteria. When the transformed bacteria are cultured on agar plates, each bacterial colony originates from a single bacterial cell and thus contains DNA from a single fungal taxon. Bacterial clones (e.g. 25-250 per sample) are collected and the cloned fungal DNA is re-amplified and sequenced (Landeweert et al., 2003). Taxonomic identities may be assigned by comparisons with reference sequences obtained from identified sporocarps or sporulating cultures. Cloning is costly and involves a large amount of laboratory work, and if large numbers of samples are analysed, the cloning approach has to be combined with a...

PDV genomics reveal signatures of mutualist and parasitic lifestyles

Likely produced by duplications of segments of the viral genome and tandem duplications of an initial copy (Friedman and Hughes, 2006 C. Serbielle et al., unpublished results). In CcBV, for example, almost half of the genes are organized in gene families (Dupuy et al., 2006), including the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPs 27 genes), cactus inhibitory kB (IKB)-like (six genes), cystatin (three genes), and cysteine-motif (cysteine-rich protein (CRP) four genes) gene families. In addition, several bracovirus gene families encode conserved proteins that show no similarities to entries in the sequence databases. Few of these factors have been studied due to the difficulty of predicting and thus assessing their possible roles, but they are likely to represent new potential functions.

Nitrogen Import During Early Decomposition Stages

Additions of nitrogen increased both fungal respiration and biomass (chitin assay) as well as weight loss of Scots pine needles inoculated with M. epipterygia in laboratory systems (Boberg and Lindahl, unpublished data), indicating that the needle decomposer was constrained by low nitrogen availability. Furthermore, cellulase activity increased in response to nitrogen additions to litter in the field (Carreiro et al., 2000). When litter-filled mesh bags were incubated in the field, the nitrogen content of leaf and wood litter increased during the first years of decomposition, not only in relative concentration, but also in absolute amounts (Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982 Fahey et al., 1985 Dighton and Boddy, 1989). Using 15N tracer isotope, Hart and Firestone (1990) and Frey et al. (2000) demonstrated vertical translocation of nitrogen into surface litter in a forest and an agricultural soil. Thus, fungi appear to translocate nitrogen into fresh, nitrogen-poor litter, and thereby promote...

Adaptation in plant speciation future work

For example, multivariate regression or path analysis of multiple molecular and morphological trait differences, including reproductive barriers, between taxa can evaluate the independent associations between isolating barriers, and putatively neutral and adaptive differentiation (e.g., Tilley et al. 1990). This approach allows a simultaneous assessment of the relative causal importance of different genetic traits in the evolution of reproductive isolation, and the identification of adaptive traits that are potentially associated with these barriers, without the development of extensive molecular genetic tools beyond simple genetic markers (Moyle, unpublished).

Exploiting An Erratic Resource

FIGURE 2.2 (a) Water-vapor uptake of leaves of the fern Cheilanthes fragrans with sealed petioles in a moist chamber. The different symbols stand for four replicates (L. Kappen, unpublished results). (b) Water uptake of leaves of C. fragrans placed on filter paper in a moist chamber (open circles) with petiole in a vessel with water and standing in a moist chamber (closed circles), and (open and closed triangles) with petiole in water in a room (approximately 60 rh) (L. Kappen, unpublished results).

Nitrogen Export During Late Saprotrophic Decomposition Stages

Traditional nitrogen cycling theory is based around the mineralisation of organic nitrogen and release of ammonium during decomposition. Release of inorganic nitrogen occurs when microorganisms experience carbohydrate deficiency and therefore utilise organic, nitrogen-containing compounds as a source of energy, leaving ammonium as a by-product (Myrold, 1998). This concept was developed for unicellular microorganisms, which are restricted to resources in their immediate vicinity and may therefore easily experience carbon deficiency. Filamentous fungi, on the other hand, may circulate resources throughout their entire mycelia, and mycelium experiencing local carbon deficiency may be supported from more or less distant resources (Chapter 3). In coniferous forest ecosystems, litter input is often more continuous than in other ecosystems, and needles may constitute a high-quality source of cellulose for at least 2 years. Thus, carbon limitation and subsequent nitrogen mineralisation is...

Acoustic Communication In Muellerianella Species

Initially acoustic studies were made with primitive equipment by a student in Wageningen in 1975 (Houwink, unpublished report). At that time recordings were made only of the males and females of the two bisexual species, their male and female hybrids, and the then only known pseudogamic female associated with M. fairmairei (Drosopoulos, 1985). Further studies were made on the same species initially, and in addition on M. extrusa and the male calling songs of sympatric and allopatric populations of M. fairmairei and M. brevipennis (Booij, 1982b). Here I will refer briefly to the main findings of these studies. Details are in Booij (1982b). However, Booij did not report on the acoustic signals of sterile hybrids from various crossings between the bisexual species. I report here that male hybrids are produced especially readily in the laboratory, and are very active and copulate more easily with parental females, maybe due to their intermediate songs and genitalia (Drosopoulos, 1985)....

Functional analysis of PDV virulence genes

Another approach for testing the involvement of PDV-encoded factors in parasitism consists of studying their evolution by comparing viral genes in different species of a wasp genus to identify whether selection pressures promoting divergence of the sequences are operating on these genes, thus indicating their involvement in dynamic molecular interactions between hosts and parasites. Using this method we have been able to show that genes belonging to two families present in the CcBV genome (cystatin and PTP) have been under diversifying selection pressures, indicating they most probably play an important role in parasitism success (Serbielle et al., 2008 C. Serbielle et al., unpublished results). Similar results were obtained for cysteine-motif proteins in ichnoviruses (Dupas et al., 2003). Certain PDV gene families encode proteins with characterized domains, which enable prediction of their biochemical activity and possible involvement in host physiology. In the cases of PDV...

Identification of Attractants for Malaria Mosquitoes

The process of value creation since that time has shown more difficult. With proven behavioural effects of the lead VOCs in olfactometer and electrophysiology studies, the exact composition and dose of VOCs in blends that can work under field conditions remains laborious (Qiu et al. 2007). Meanwhile, however, worn socks have been shown to effectively trap An. gambiae under semi-field conditions (Njiru et al. 2006 S. Moore and F. Oketch, unpublished data) and in experimental hut trials in The Gambia (M. Jawara, unpublished data) and the search for effective synthetic blends continues.

Ecological Consequences of Oak Masting

After a single 2-3-day blood meal, larval ticks drop off the host and molt into the nymphal stage, which remains quiescent for 10 months or so, only becoming active the following late spring or early summer. Nymphs that acquired B. burgdorferi during their larval meal may transmit the disease agent to their human or nonhuman host during their nymphal meal. Because nymphs are small ( 1 mm) and therefore difficult to detect, and because their season of peak activity coincides with that of humans, this life stage is probably responsible for transmitting the majority of Lyme disease cases (Barbour and Fish 1993). At forested sites in southeastern New York State, 25 -35 of nymphs are infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Van Buskirk and Ostfeld et al., 1998, Ostfeld, unpublished data). Similar to larvae, nymphs do not specialize on any particular host species but instead feed on a wide variety of vertebrates. Feeding to repletion requires 2-3 days, after which nymphs drop off the host...

Toward Biological Control of Adult Mosquito Vectors

The value creation of this novel method to control adult mosquitoes is dependent on a variety of technical and implementation issues (Knols and Thomas 2006). A key concern relates to the persistence of spores once applied inside local houses. However, recent identification of mosquito-killing isolates of Beauveria bassiana has shown spore persistence exceeding 6 months (M. Thomas, pers. comm.), bringing practical application closer. More intricate is the fact that biologicals are still viewed as inferior to chemical insecticides much in the same way natural enemies and predators were viewed in the 1980s in the greenhouse example described before. This in spite of the fact that late-killing fungi (mosquitoes succumb to infections 6-14 post exposure to fungi) have a much reduced chance of mosquitoes developing resistance against these (Thomas and Read 2007). Moreover, it has recently been shown that following exposure to fungus, insecticide-resistant strains of An. gambiae, An....

An islandmainland model with infrequent adaptive colonization

Cm (E + ea) + (E + em)ea The total occupancy is P* P* + Pm. The fraction of occupied islands that are adapted is E (E + ea). Adaptation means that there will be genetic differentiation between the island and mainland populations, and so this quantity is the fraction of occupied islands that have endemic species. A little manipulation of (10.8) shows that adaptation increases occupancy if ea < em, which makes intuitive sense. It is interesting that the degree of endemism on occupied islands is not affected by either the colonization rate, or the rate of extinction of maladapted populations, but only the rate of evolution and the rate of extinction of adapted populations. This conclusion is altered if there is heterogeneity among islands or species in extinction rates (R.D. Holt, unpublished results).

Effect of Wax Barriers on Host Specificity

Fiala et al. 19 clearly confirms that Macaranga wax barriers act as an ecological isolation mechanism between different ant associates of Macaranga. Of the eight Crematogaster (Decacrema) morphospecies recognized by Fiala et al. 19 , six morphospecies are wax runners and two are non-wax runners (Figure 8.1). A recently discovered new Crematogaster (Decacrema) morphospecies is also associated with nonwaxy hosts (H. Feldhaar, unpublished results). This specificity pattern becomes even more clear-cut when only adult colonies (and no founding queens) are considered ( 19 B. Fiala, personal communication). growth rate than the same morphospecies living sympatrically on nonwaxy Macaranga hosts (H. Feldhaar, unpublished results). Specialization of Crematogaster (Decacrema) clades (identified from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI gene sequences) to host plants with vs. without wax barriers has also been confirmed by Quek et al. 21 , but their study suggested that several clades...

Basidiomycete Effects On Decomposition Rates

Similarly, white-rot basidiomycetes significantly increased the rate of mass loss during a field experiment in a secondary wet subtropical forest at Sabana in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (D.J. Lodge et al., unpublished). A natural mixture of freshly fallen leaves (10 g fresh mass 4.0 g oven dry mass) was allowed to decompose for 3 months beginning in mid-June 2004 (rainy season). In paired comparisons, after 3 months, decay of litter placed on white-rot litter basidiomycete mats was 8.4 greater than on adjacent (< 50 cm away) forest floor lacking mats (12 pairs Figure 1).

Organic Matter and Nutrients

Averaged 11.6 percent with an observed range of 180 percent and half the observations in the range 4-16 percent (Kiviat et al., unpublished data). SOM (on a small plot basis) is correlated with marsh surface elevation, aboveground biomass and stature of vascular vegetation, and plant species richness, benthic macroinvertebrate andtaxonrichness,and (on a whole-marsh basis) fish species richness and mummichog density (Findlay et al., 2002a Mi-hocko et al., 2003).

Litter Mat Abundance Along An Elevation Gradient

Percent of ground covered by basidiomycete litter mats, and extent of individual mats, was assessed along an elevation gradient in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (from 8 June to 4 July 1994 rainy season), by examining leaves along transects to determine if they were attached to surrounding litter by hyphal strands, cords, rhizomorphs or holdfasts (D.J. Lodge et al., unpublished). The percentage of ground covered by litter mats generally increased with slope and decreased with elevation (Figure 2). Inputs from leaf litter fall decreased sharply in elfin forest at high elevation in the Luquillo Mountains (Weaver et al., 1986 Lodge et al., 1991). The litter layer in high-elevation forests is discontinuous and thin (Weaver et al., 1986) a condition unfavorable to basidiomycetes that require a nearly continuous layer of litter on the forest floor to maintain their mycelia and incorporate new resources rapidly. Most of the basidiomycetes that formed litter mats in Palo Colorado and elfin...

Brain ontogeny and ecomorphology in bats

Reported that in the insectivorous bats Myotis lucifugus and Tadarida brasil-iensis the nervus terminalis was clearly present before birth, but could not be identified in adults. However, the use of immunocytochemical techniques in recent years (Oelschlager 1988 Oelschlager & Northcutt 1992) has demonstrated the persistence of the nervus terminalis in both embryos and adult microchiropterans (Myotis myotis, M. bocagei, Minio-pterus spp., Eptesicusfuscus, Rhinolophus mehelyi, R. blasii, Hipposideros caffer), and reportedly in one species of megabat (Pteropus spp.) (unpublished observations cited in Oelschlager & Northcutt 1992).

Limits of the Everkite Model and Perspective for Future Developments

The current version of Everkite ignores the effects of several potentially important hydrological components. One component is the frequency of flooding (very high water), which, if too high, could be highly detrimental to kite habitats, even if followed by dry conditions. Flooding can affect kites by reducing recruitment of apple snails (Darby et al., 2005) or by degrading the vegetation communities characterizing both nesting and foraging kite habitats (Kitchens et al., unpublished). Another limitation of the model is that the effect of prolonged drought on apple snails is not taken into consideration. Darby (1998) found that mortality increased substantially while recruitment decreased dramatically during longer drying events. We predict that incorporating the effect of drought duration on apple snail dynamics would increase the negative effects of drought duration on snail kite population growth. The last limitation that we wish to discuss is related to the drought criterion used...

Conclusions and Conservation Implications

In order to understand the causes for the more recent population decline and lack of recruitment, especially in WCA3A during the last eight years (Martin et al., unpublished data), we may need to focus more attention on the effect of flooding events and extended hydroperiods on kite demography and habitat dynamics.

Attachment Force vs Climbing Performance Is Wax Running Capacity Based on Greater Attachment or Superior Locomotion

To investigate whether the wax running capacity of Crematogaster (Decacrema) ants is based on special adaptations of the attachment system to waxy substrates, we compared the ants' climbing performance with actual attachment forces generated on waxy Macaranga stems. Climbing performance was quantified by placing workers of Crematogaster (Decacrema) msp.2 (wax runners) and Crematogaster (Decacrema) msp.4 (non-wax runners) on vertical waxy M. hypoleuca stems (n 34 workers from 2 colonies of each morphospecies 2 stems of 11 mm diameter) and determining the proportion of ants capable of walking to one of two finishing lines 5 cm above and below the release point within 10 min 17 . Attachment was measured in the same ants as the centrifugal shear force required to detach them from waxy M. hypoleuca stems (13 stems with diameters between 8 and 13 mm). Surprisingly, we found that attachment forces per body weight were not significantly different between species, with a trend toward greater...

Harsh abiotic environment

Ashman 1999, unpublished data About half of the among-population comparisons described above (Table 11.2, prediction 1) also show that hermaphrodites produce fewer seeds in dry or nutrient-poor habitats (Table 11.2, prediction 2). Whether this pattern reflects resource- (or size-) based plasticity of seed production, or genetic differentiation of hermaphrodites as a result of divergent selection along the resource gradient is unknown. Specifically, because female frequency increases as resources decline (Table 11.2, prediction 1) and high frequencies of females select for increased maleness of hermaphrodites (Charlesworth 1989), hermaphrodites in low-resource populations may be genetically more male (i.e., low or no fruit set) than those in high-resource sites. Moreover, if plasticity is costly and environment dependent, then selection may eliminate highly plastic types in low-resource conditions. For example, if maintaining flexible fruit production reduces fitness through...

Analysing the mean of the Poisson distribution

Researchers studying the structure of vegetation in New York measured the density of saplings and trees at ten quadrats (each 400 m2 in area) in Van Cortlandt Park, one of their study sites (McDonnell, unpublished data). To estimate the average density of red oak (Quercus rubra) in the park, the Poisson distribution (as a model of randomness) is a reasonable description of the variation in the number of trees sampled in the quadrats.

Patchfishing prey sites and prey replacement

In Scottish freshwater lochs, similar feeding patches occur (unpublished observations), small areas close to or far from the shore where otters dive scores of times and catch eels, year after year. I have not been able to associate these areas with habitat features, but it seems likely that they are characterized by particular substrates or vegetation. Otters can harvest these prey sites again and again, after a time interval of say, a day (see fish removal experiment in the section Trapping and counting fish in Chapter 8).

Common Properties And Peculiarities Of Single Systematic Groups

The following species of Sehirinae have so far been investigated T. bicolor, T. sexmaculatus, T. rotundipennis (Gogala, 1970 Gogala and Hocevar, 1990), Sehirus luctuosus, Canthophorus impressus (Gogala, 1978a), C. dubius, C. melanopterus (Gogala, 1970), Legnotus limbosus (unpublished data). Thyreocorinae are considered by some specialists as a separate family and by others as a subfamily of Cydnidae. In this group the tergal plate is again an important part of the vibratory system, but instead of the lima on the laterofrontal margins of the first tergite a simple ridge is present in Galgupha ovalis (Lawson and Chu, 1971), and in Thyreocoris scarabaeoides only males have a simple ridge and females have a lima (Draslar and Gogala, 1976). Signals of a stridulatory origin and low frequency non stridulatory ones were recorded in T. scarabaeoides (unpublished data).

Incorrect Selection of Temporal Grain

Whether their landscape pattern affects resource selection by a population of wild animals. Forthe landscape pattern to be effective (Ritchie, 1997 Bissonette, 2003), the arrangement of the foods (not just the amount) must influence resource selection by the animals. To test if spatial arrangement of foods is effective, clustering of food-bearing patches within home ranges might be estimated. If the temporal grain of 1 year is used (i.e., annual home ranges), which is common among studies of resource selection, information critical for testing whether pattern is effective may be masked. For example, seasonal foods may be distributed in numerous ways within the annual home range, 2 of which are demonstrated in Fig. 10.4 (A1 and B1 Reynolds, unpublished data). In A1, summer foods are clustered with summer

Bumble bee behavior on artificial inflorescences

Artificial inflorescence experiments attempt to bridge the gap between bee-board experiments and pollinator behavior in the field some have been used to test optimality models (Cartar & Abrahams 1996). We used artificial inflorescences to test both for frequency dependence and differences in the numbers of flowers visited per inflorescence between morphs (A. Smithson & L. Gigord, unpublished data). We made artificial inflorescences from green plastic rods 40 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, the top of which held 10 flowers arranged spirally around the rod 1.5 cm apart. Flowers were colored card stock corollas, with central holes that gave access to wells inside the rod, into which we pipetted sucrose solution. We conducted two experiments in a cage, with inflorescences of purple and yellow arranged randomly on a grid at frequencies of 50 yellow 25 purple and 50 purple 25 yellow. Worker bumble bees (Bombus terrestris) from a captive colony foraged singly. After removing data from...

Temporal Availability of Soft Mast and Hard Mast Within Clear Cuts

Timber harvesting affects the availability of soft mast differently than hard mast. Clear-cutting (removal of all trees within a stand) was the primary harvesting technique in PBS so we measured percent plant cover and estimated berry production of soft mast genera within 100 clear-cuts (ranging from 0 to 121 years old) across PBS and used these data to develop statistical models for predicting the availability of soft mast in clear-cuts as it changed through time. The availability of soft mast was highest in 2-9-year-old clear-cuts, lowest in 10-49-year-old clear-cuts, and moderate in 50+ year old clear-cuts (Fig. 10.5 Reynolds et al., unpublished data). Figure 10.5. Temporal availability (standardized) of soft mast (Gaylussacia spp., Vaccinium spp., and Rubus spp. combined) and hard mast in clear-cuts in western North Carolina. The statistical model for soft mast availability was developed from field data collected in 100 clear-cuts throughout PBS in western North Carolina 2001-2002...

Evolution of sexual systems in a metapopulation

Theoretical analysis indicates that the selection of sexual systems varies with population turnover in metapopulations (Pannell 1997a, 2001). With frequent turnover, hermaphroditism replaces dioecy quickly, whereas with very low rates of extinction and recolonization, or when gene flow among populations outweighs the effects of colonization, dioecy may be stable (J. R. Pannell unpublished data). Finally, at intermediate rates of population turnover, females or males can be maintained indefinitely with hermaphrodites through a balance between selection for separate sexes in local populations (e.g., due to negative frequency dependence and the advantages of sexual specialization), and selection for self-fertile hermaphroditism at the metapopulation level (through selection for reproductive assurance during colonization). In this case, the frequency of males or females maintained in the metapopulation depends on both the rate of population turnover and the rate of gene flow among...

Demographic Response of Bears

We evaluated competing hypotheses about the degree to which hard mast and soft mast limited PBS bears by estimating annual demographic parameters and linking them with annual estimates of mast availability (Reynolds et al., unpublished data). Using capture-recapture data from 101 females captured during 1981-2002 and the temporal symmetry method (Pradel, 1996) in Program MARK (White and Burnham, 1999), we estimated apparent survival, fertility, and X. We also modeled annual distributions of hard mast and soft mast across the landscape each year from 1981 to 2001, as they changed due to timber harvesting and succession. We separated productivity of soft mast in 2-9 year old clear-cuts from that of the remaining landscape to evaluate their effects on demography of bears separately. The spatial grain of our resource data was 30 meters and the spatial extent was PBS. For each demographic parameter (survival, fertility, and X), we incorporated annual estimates of hard and soft mast...

Stoats in New Zealand Beech Forests

The sequence was originally worked out from a large sample of New Zealand stoat carcasses collected in the 1970s (King & Moody 1982 King 1983b Powell & King 1997 King 2002), and confirmed in the same or similar areas many times since (Murphy & Dowding 1995 O'Donnell & Phillipson 1996 Wilson et al. 1998 King et al. 2003b Purdey et al. 2004). The data have been used to construct three independent computer models of the relationships between stoats and rodents in this simple, feast-or-famine environment (Blackwell et al. 2001 Barlow & Choquenot 2002 Wittmer et al. unpublished).

Maledeterring Signals

Although some interspecific differences exist, mating in Triatomines is essentially similar across species. It is characterised by a series of behavioural steps, performed mainly by the male. Briefly, the male approaches the female and either suddenly jumps on to her or mounts her slowly. Then, the male grasps the female with its legs and attempts to copulate. The male's copulatory attempts are not always successful since female receptivity varies, being a main factor affecting success of copulation, at least in species such as T. infestans (Manrique and Lazzari, 1994) and Panstrongylus megistus (Pires et al., 2004). Nonreceptive females usually display different kinds of rejection behaviour, including stridulation (Manrique and Lazzari, 1994). Female stridulation occurs once the male has mounted and in response the male stops his attempt to copulate. The male then remains motionless, irrespective of the mating step he was performing at the time of the stridulation. Then, when the...

Modeling longterm trends in tusk inheritance

Simulated frequency of the (a) tusk allele over the long-term in reproductive adults and (b) the proportion of tuskers among reproductive male elephants under the conditions that the tusk allele is dominant, tusked males have a 60 reproductive advantage over tuskless males and tusked males suffer higher mortality than do tuskless males (these were simulated by R. Sukumar and G. Pradhan unpublished results 2003 by modifying the model described in Tiedemann and Kurt 1995 see text for details). Simulated frequency of the (a) tusk allele over the long-term in reproductive adults and (b) the proportion of tuskers among reproductive male elephants under the conditions that the tusk allele is dominant, tusked males have a 60 reproductive advantage over tuskless males and tusked males suffer higher mortality than do tuskless males (these were simulated by R. Sukumar and G. Pradhan unpublished results 2003 by modifying the model described in Tiedemann and Kurt 1995 see text for details).

War as a Disease Amplifier

Of the various factors that amplify disease, this particular relationship is doubtless the least understood, and it requires the development of a robust theoretical construct of probable paths of causality. The intellectual soil has not remained utterly fallow, as historians have noted this relationship for centuries, and yet such issues remain relatively unexplored within the domain of political science. This chapter explores both historical sources, and the current available empirical data, in order to develop and refine a series of testable hypotheses to inform future work in this neglected area. To empirically establish this relationship I analyze previously unpublished data from the German and Austrian archives regarding the effects of World War I on disease-induced morbidity and mortality.

Have Nectar Sugar Concentrations Evolved to Match Pollinator Preferences

Unpublished unpublished insects in laboratory studies. Numerous investigations have measured visitation rates of nectarivores to effectively infinite volume sucrose solutions and concluded that these animals prefer the most concentrated solutions offered them 96,120-122 . One problem with this approach is that it confounds nectar sugar concentration with total meal energy 75,123 . The more relevant question is how much water should a plant add to a fixed quantity of sugar in order to maximize attractiveness to pollinators 115 . Furthermore, behavioral studies should use realistic nectar volumes and monitor transport costs to and from nectar sources so that the data may be analyzed for a variety of timescales 26,77 . Roberts' exemplary study of hummingbird foraging 123 analyzed concentration preferences at different timescales but employed an equal volume rather than an equal sugar design. Hainsworth and Hamill 75 conducted the only published sugar choice experiment we know of by...

Commitments to restore wetlands

The restoration of wetland systems is now a high profile ideal of many developed and developing nations. Restoration or rehabilitation of wetlands affected by direct sources of pollution is more easily affected as the degraded condition is often attributable to few pollution sources. Depending on the nature of the system, rehabilitation can occur rapidly, e.g., in fast flowing streams, or can take decades, e.g., endorheic (closed) crater lakes (Gell, unpublished data) and estuaries (Chapter 14). The restoration of wetlands subject mostly to diffuse pollution sources, particularly if situated within large catchments such as the Murray Darling Basin (MDB) of Australia or the Mississippi River basin in the USA, is a vastly greater challenge as the degradation may have occurred over decades, is driven by a myriad of causes and sources of pollution and continues to be subjected to a pervasive shift in hydrological, ecological and socio-political regime.

Temperature and Optimal Nectar Foraging

Environmental temperature and nectar sugar concentration interact to influence both the energetic costs or foraging and the rate of energy intake during feeding. Nectar viscosity increases at colder temperatures, and the dependence of viscosity on temperature increases with increasing sugar concentration 26 . Consequently, one general prediction is that nectar intake rates should decline at cooler temperatures, a prediction that has been confirmed in experiments with both butterflies 126 and euglossine bees (B.J. Borrell, unpublished). Thus, foraging insects would do well to forage in sunny patches 26,111,127 or at inflorescences with endogenous heat sources 128 . The relevant behavioral experiment would involve independently controlling nectar temperature and air temperature to partition thermoregulatory costs from feeding costs.

Diversity in Mate Advertisement Signals

The degree of complexity in membracid mating signals may be correlated with signalling rates. Species that produce simple signals typically repeat them relatively rapidly in bouts of 2 to 12 signals, separated from other bouts by silent intervals (Figure 23.2c). In some cases when multiple males are present, males may produce a continuous series of signals (e.g. Notocera bituberculata, some Enchenopa binotata unpublished data). These groups of stationary, continuously signalling males are analogous to the choruses described for some leafhoppers (Ossiannilsson, 1949

Signal Reception and Receiver Preferences in Membracids

In addition to the frequency tuning of the vibration receptors, vibration perception is also influenced by the mechanical response of the body to substrate vibration, as shown in a study of Umbonia crassicornis (Cocroft et al., 2000). A treehopper's body resting on its legs is analogous to a mass on a set of springs, with resonant properties like other mass-and-spring systems (Cocroft et al., 2000). The resonance of the body can change when the insect alters its position (unpublished data), and such changes may be important in vibration perception. In a fiddler crab, where the body likewise behaves as a mass-and-spring system, individuals alter their posture after detecting a substrateborne signal and thereby sharpen the frequency tuning around the resonant peak (Aicher et al., 1983). The mechanical response of the body to substrate vibration also provides a source of directional cues, but it is not known whether the insects use these cues (Cocroft et al., 2000).

Mimicry Complexes in the Holarctic

There are few general overviews of mimetic relationships in particular faunas, except for Australia (Nicholson, 1927) and the UK (Brown, 1951). Most models have conspicuous aposematic patterns, often involving sharp contrasts of two or more different colours. In Britain, the following aposematic patterns occur amongst models yellow and black (wasps, hornets, many bumblebees), red and black (many beetles, some bugs, moths and a few bumblebees), red (beetles), black (beetles) and metallic shining colours (beetles). There are some non-aposematic mimics, for example of honeybees, and ants (e.g. spiders). Not all possible models are made use of by Batesian mimics for example, the red-and-black burnet moths and other similar distasteful insects have not been copied. Two sets of models and their Batesian mimics make up significant proportions of the fauna hymenopteran models with dipteran mimics, and unpalatable coleopteran models with palatable coleopteran mimics. Numerically the...

Mating Signals and Speciation in the Enchenopa binotata Complex

Are now underway to examine variation in male signals and female preference curves within and between species (unpublished data). These studies will reveal which signal traits are most important in assortative mating, and set the stage for further studies to examine how host shifts influence the evolution of those traits. Research on E. binotata also suggests that the communication system can contribute to assortative mating in the early stages of a host shift before divergence in signals or preferences has occurred. For example, the communication system might contribute to assortative mating if host fidelity is reflected in male mate-searching behaviour, such that males invest less in signalling on nonnatal hosts. Sattman and Cocroft (2003) found that signalling behaviour is indeed influenced by plant identity male E. binotata from Ptelea trifoliata produced fewer, shorter signals when on a nonhost plant. This host fidelity in advertisement signalling should have the consequence of...

The Models of Hoverfly Mimics 41 Bumblebees

Holarctic mimicry rings from assessments in the literature (full data of all the hoverfly species and their morphs are provided in F. Gilbert (unpublished)). Some species have both good and poor morphs, and hence only summary numbers of each are given. Table 9.1. Holarctic mimicry rings from assessments in the literature (full data of all the hoverfly species and their morphs are provided in F. Gilbert (unpublished)). Some species have both good and poor morphs, and hence only summary numbers of each are given.

Diversity in Social Signals

Social signalling is widespread in membracids and may occur in all group-living species. Where social signals have been recorded from immatures, the signals and signalling behaviour of closely related species are similar, suggesting that social signals are more evolutionarily conservative than male advertisement signals (Figure 23.4). For example, Umbonia crassicornis, in which immatures produce group displays in an antipredator context, is a member of a clade with similar forms of offspring aggregations and maternal care (the Hoplophorionini McKamey and Deitz, 1996). Signals very similar to those of U. crassicornis have been recorded not only in congeners including U. spinosa and U. ataliba, but also in other related genera including Alchisme and Potnia (Figure 23.4b). All were produced by maternally-defended immatures in response to disturbance (unpublished data). The signals of Calloconophora pinguis nymphs (Figure 23.4c Cocroft, 2005) are very different from those of U....

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