Ecological studies of cities and towns 127

8 Responses of faunal assemblages to urbanisation: global research paradigms and an avian case study 129 Carla P. Catterall

9 Effect of urban structures on diversity of marine species 156 M.G. Chapman, David Blockley, Julie People and Brianna Clynick

10 Comparative studies of terrestrial vertebrates in urban areas 177

Charles Nilon

11 The ecology of roads in urban and urbanising landscapes 185 Rodney van der Ree

12 Spatial pattern and process in urban animal communities 197 Yosihiro Natuhara and Hiroshi Hashimoto

13 Invertebrate biodiversity in urban landscapes: assessing remnant habitat and its restoration 215

Dieter F. Hochuli, Fiona J. Christie and Boris Lomov

14 Arthropods in urban ecosystems: community patterns as functions of anthropogenic land use 233

Nancy E. McIntyre and Jessamy J. Rango

15 Light pollution and the impact of artificial night lighting on insects 243

Gerhard Eisenbeis and Andreas HAnel

16 A comparison of vegetation cover in Beijing and Shanghai: a remote sensing approach 264

Jun Yang and Zhou Jinxing

17 Vegetation composition and structure of forest patches along urban-rural gradients 274

Wayne C. Zifferer and Glenn R. Guntensfergen

18 Environmental, social and spatial determinants of urban arboreal character in Auckland, New Zealand 287 Colin D. Meurk, Nadya Zvyagna, Rhys O. Gardner,

Guy Forrester, Mike Wilcox, Graeme Hall, Heather North, Stella Belliss, Kathryn Whaley, Bill Sykes, Jerry Coofer and Kathryn O'Halloran

19 Carbon and nitrogen cycling in soils of remnant forests along urban-rural gradients: case studies in the New York metropolitan area and Louisville, Kentucky 308 Margaret M. Carreiro, Richard V. Pouyat, Christopher E. Trifler and Wei-Xing Zhu

20 Investigative approaches to urban biogeochemical cycles:

New York metropolitan area and Baltimore as case studies 329 Richard V. Pouyat, Margaret M. Carreiro, Peter M. Groffman and Mitchell A. Pavao-Zuckerman

Part III Integrating science with management and planning 353

21 Structural analysis of urban landscapes for landscape management in German cities 355

JUrgen H. Breuste

22 Preservation of original natural vegetation in urban areas: an overview 380

Clas FlorgArd

23 Homogeneity of urban biotopes and similarity of landscape design language in former colonial cities 399

Maria E. Ignatieva and Glenn H. Stewart

24 Tools to assess human impact on biotope resilience and biodiversity in urban planning: examples from Stockholm, Sweden 422

Katarina Lofvenhaft

25 Landscape ecological analysis and assessment in an urbanising environment 439

Ulla Mörtberg

26 Applying landscape ecological principles to a fascinating landscape: the city 456

Robbert Snef, Wim Timmermans and Robert Kwak

27 A trans-disciplinary research approach providing a platform for improved urban design, quality of life and biodiverse urban ecosystems 470

Charles T. Eason, Jennifer E. Dixon and Marjorie R. van Roon

28 Pattern:process metaphors for metropolitan landscapes 484 Laura R. Musacchio

29 Valuing urban wetlands: modification, preservation and restoration 503

Glenn R. Guntensfergen, Andrew H. Baldwin, Dianna M. Hogan, Hilary A. Neckles and Martha G. Nielsen

Part IV Comments and synthesis 521

30 What is the main object of urban ecology? Determining demarcation using the example of research into urban flora 523

RUdiger Wittig

31 How to conduct comparative urban ecological research 530 Susanna LehvAvirta and D. Johan Kotze

32 Ecological scientific knowledge in urban and land-use planning 549

Kristina L. Nilsson and Clas FlorgArd

33 Envisioning further steps in comparative urban ecology 557 Orie Loucks

Towards a comparative ecology of cities and towns 567

KlRSTEN PaRRIS

35 A comparative ecology of cities and towns: synthesis of opportunities and limitations 574 Amy K. Hahs, Mark J. McDonnell and Jurgen H. Breuste

References 597 Index 700

The colour plates are situated between pages 362 and 363

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Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

Homeowners Guide To Landscaping

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