Contents

Foreword xi Foreword xiii Preface xvii Acknowledgments xxi

1 Regions and land mosaics 1

A framework 1

Terms and concepts to reveal urban regions 6 Regions 11

Land-mosaic perspective and landscape ecology 16 Spatial scales and their attributes 18

2 Planning land 27

Planning and land management 27 Conservation planning 33 Planned cities 40 Urban-region planning 45

3 Economic dimensions and socio-cultural patterns 51

Growth, regulatory, and ecological economics 51 Economics in time, space, and footprints 59 Social patterns 66 Culture 73

4 Natural systems and greenspaces 80

Ecosystem, community, and population ecology 82 Freshwater and marine coast ecology 93

Earth and soil 99

Microclimate and air pollutants 102 Greenspaces 105

5 Thirty-eight urban regions 113

Selecting cities, determining boundaries, mapping regions 113

Key spatial attributes 119

Thirty-eight urban regions mapped 125

Place-name synopses of the regions 125

Broad patterns of the urban-region set 134

6 Nature, food, and water 138

Spatial analysis for patterns 138 Nature in urban regions 142 Food in urban regions 150 Water in urban regions 155

7 Built systems, built areas, and whole regions 164

Natural systems within and next to built areas 165 Built systems 168 Built areas 177 Whole regions 189

8 Urbanization models and the regions 198

Land-change patterns and models 199 Four urbanization models 206 Models applied to case studies 211

Urbanization options evaluated with 18 attributes and 38 regions 215

9 Basic principles for molding land mosaics 223

Patch sizes, edges, and habitats 224 Natural processes, corridors, and networks 229 Transportation modes 232 Communities and development 234 Land mosaics and landscape change 239

10 The Barcelona Region's land mosaic 243

Perspective and approach 244 Nature, food, and water 248 Built areas and systems 260 Three plan options for the region 268 Reflections two years later 274

11 Gathering the pieces 282

Settings and forms of urban regions 282

Ability to extrapolate the Barcelona solutions 290

Local communities, ecology, and planning 295

Good, bad, and interesting patterns in urban regions 304

12 Big pictures 315

Garden-to-gaia, urban sustainability, disasters 315 Climate change, species extinction, water scarcity 325 Big-ideas--regulation--treaties--policy--governance, megacities, sense of place 334 Awakening to the urban tsunami 343

Appendices 346 References 352 Index 380

Color plate section can be found between pages 118 and 119

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