In this chapter we have highlighted some of the pitfalls in current research practices that lead to incrementalism and absence of highly innovative ideas. To a large extent this is determined by the gap between appropriation of knowledge and what is requested from vector biologists in academia (publications, grants, teaching and training). It surfaced that current malaria vector control (nets and indoor residual spraying) is based on just two publications in the last Century. We highlight the importance of synergy and value creation and show how these can drive transformational thinking and development of new concepts in vector control. It is concluded that approaches that worked well in the past (larval control, house improvement) have lost appeal and suffer from flaws in value creation that are largely managerial and not science-based. New approaches, in particular genetic control of mosquitoes, will need due consideration of value creation if these are to evolve into open field implementation. Three examples of lateral thinking and application of synergy and value creation have been presented. More will be needed if we are to tackle the challenges posed by disease vectors in the years to come.

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