Introduction

The modern era of insecticide toxicology was launched by discovery of the insecti-cidal properties of DDT. The global significance of DDT for control of major human diseases was succinctly reviewed in 1957 by de Bustamante, Brazil's national malaria control program coordinator. He stated

Until 1945-1946, preventive methods employed against malaria in Brasil, as in the rest of the world, were generally directed against the aquatic phases of the vectors (draining, larvicides, destruction of bromeliads, etc ). These methods, however, were only applied in the principal cities of each state and the only measure available for rural populations exposed to malaria was free distribution of specific drugs (de Bustamante 1957).

As described by de Bustamante, advent of DDT brought dramatic changes in how governments could control malaria and other important human diseases. Standard methods of DDT use evolved quickly. For malaria, it was applied indoors at concentrations of 2 g/m2 of wall surface. DDT spraying, referred to as indoor residual spraying (IRS), was deployed within highly disciplined and centralized programs that also included malaria case detection and treatment.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA

P.W. Atkinson (ed.), Vector Biology, Ecology and Control,

DOI 10.1007/978-90-481-2458-9_2, © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

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