Increasing Your Vitality
Large landed property reduces the agricultural population to an ever decreasing minimum and confronts it with an ever growing industrial population crammed together in large towns in this way it produces conditions that provoke an irreparable rift in the interdependent process of social metabolism, a metabolism prescribed by the natural laws of life itself. The result of this is a squandering of the vitality of the soil, which is carried by trade far beyond the bounds of a single country. (Liebig 1842, as quoted in Marx 1981 1865 , p. 949 similarly in Marx 1976 1867 see also Foster 2000, pp. 155f)
As Rousseau noted, the health and size of a given population would certainly have been regarded as indispensable to the vitality of that body politic, and to the puissance of that nation. The manifestation of pathogenic infectious disease represented (and represents) a direct threat to the population base, erodes economic productivity, often weakens the institutions of the state and its ability to provide public goods, compromises governmental legitimacy, and often led to intra-class and or intra-ethnic conflict within the state. Thus, an exogenous agent could act to fundamentally threaten the material interests and the stability of the affected polity in question. Furthermore, republican theory is concerned with placing constraints on the development of hierarchy within the state, recognizing the potential for despotic government and violence, directed by the state against its own people. Such concerns become
In the atmosphere, spores are subject to UV radiation, and there can be 95 loss of vitality within 1-3 days (Kallio, 1973), but pigmented spores survive better than hyaline basidiospores (Burnett, 2003). Basidiospores are relatively small 5-10 p.m and it has been suggested that their movement in air can be compared to that of smoke particles. Schlesinger et al. (2006) reported an altered mycoflora on particles carried by dust storms from the Sahara compared to the airborne fungal flora on a clear day. Mims and Mims (2004) showed that dispersal of fungal spores were correlated with smoke particles carried over the Mexican gulf.
Apical dominance is a major feature in the life of a tree as its branch and twig structure ramifies and becomes more complex in developing from a seedling to early maturity. The root system also develops rapidly at this stage, exploiting the available moisture and nutrients in the soil. The crown of the tree loses some peripheral vitality and becomes increasingly rounded during full to late maturity. A degree of branch loss is associated with dysfunction of conductive tissue. In the inner crown, however, there is often reiterative growth in which new branches grow vigorously towards the sky and are served by compart-mented vascular channels linked to the root system. Basifugal mortality, in which the outer crown starts to die back, is accompanied by incipient root death with increased fungal colonization leading to internal trunk decay from below at full maturity.
Unlike other food banks, the HTF was initially established to advocate for an end to hunger within Milwaukee and across Wisconsin. Their advocacy initiatives try to foster positive socionatural changes by lobbying to sustain the vitality of programmes and public policies that exist to help the hungry. Out of the HTF's advocacy tradition evolved an activist group, called Voices Against Hunger (VAH), comprised of over 240 Milwaukeeans that since 2003 have been committed to ending hunger in Milwaukee. One of the group's current initiatives is useful for looking more specifically at the political ecology of urban hunger. Since 2004 VAH has been lobbying the Milwaukee public school system to ratify a universal free breakfast programme that could significantly reduce childhood hunger in the city. I want to mobilize Lefebvre's notion of everyday life as a theoretical lens through which to excavate the political ecology of childhood hunger as understood through my action-research with (in)...
When organisms of the same or different populations use the same resource, the resource may become scarce, causing decreases in reproductive rate, physiological stress, and even death from starvation. This type of interaction is called exploitative competition, as it involves the exploitation of a common resource. Exploitative competition is an indirect interaction, since the reduction in the reproductive ability or vitality of the competitors is
The only apparent exception from the pattern of specificity conferred by wax barriers (Figure 8.1) is the association between the waxy M. glandibracteolata and two morphospecies of non-wax runners in Sabah (Borneo). The proximate factors explaining the existence of this association are still unclear. Even though the wax crystal surfaces of M. glandibracteolata appear to be less slippery than those of other waxy Macaranga species, the resident ant colonies show less vitality and
Economically, because they save on rent and can retain valuable employees, and because teleworking employees are generally more productive. It provides social benefits because employees and their families enjoy a higher quality of life. Moreover, traffic congestion, a major problem in many urban and suburban areas, is reduced, which benefits everyone who uses the roads. It provides environmental benefits because emissions are reduced if unnecessary commuting is limited moreover, to the extent that congestion is eased, emissions from all vehicles are reduced marginally as well (Allenby and Richards 1999 FIND SVP 1997). The data underlying these conclusions are, however, sparse and incomplete to some degree, and the extent to which economic and cultural patterns will change over time in unpredictable ways must be considered in any comprehensive cost-benefit assessment. For example, an earth systems engineering and management (ESEM) approach might lead one to ask whether in the longer...
From an ecotechnological viewpoint, succession research can either be viewed as an accompanying element of re-vegetation studies for the re-establishment of productive ecosystems, or as an instrument to deliberately direct succession in a desired fashion. The extent to which succession can be altered has been questioned in several studies (Wilcox 1998 van der Putten and al. 2000 Wiegleb and Felinks 2001). Primary colonisation of large mining areas is strongly influenced by the vegetation of the surrounding neighbourhood. The main dispersal mechanism is wind blow, and the vitality and survival of the diasporas includes their germination rates and early mortality rates, which are of utmost importance (Wiegleb and Felinks 2001). Early colonising species are typically annual plants that are eventually replaced by later-colonizing perennial dominated communities. The superior long-term competitive ability of many perennial species arises from their well developed root systems and their...
Another important aspect, influencing vitality of the species, is the integrated character of energetic abilities of living organisms. H. T. Odum proposed a concept of emergy (embodied energy) as ''a measure of energy used in the past'' and stored in the system's structure. The concept is being developed by S. E. J0rgensen and others. The maximum 'empower principle' is proposed by H. T. Odum as ''a unifying concept that explains why there are material cycles, autocatalytic feedbacks, succession stages, spatial concentrations in centers, and pulsing over time.'' Generalization of the approach is possible by way of taking into consideration 'population strategies' of species. For example, one can base on the r K concept or its
Another important point is the fact that evolution of the organic world never totally destroyed the cycles that previously existed, but only supplemented and transformed them. All new forms are forced to adapt to existing conditions and are not 'interested' in their destruction. Besides, the biosphere is characterized by extremely various conditions in some cases 'old-fashioned' cycles still were the most effective. Thus, biogeochemical evolution is not a process of the change of old cycles by new ones it is a process of cycles 'layering', development of complex dynamical networks. Such a multilevel, diverse character of cycling provides unique vitality to the biosphere, which successfully develops in spite of various natural cataclysms, which took place during the existence of life.
Reprinted from Ecological Monographs, volume 70, J. J. Anderson, A vitality-based model relating stressors and environmental properties to organismal survival, pp. 445-470, Figure 5 (p. 455) and Figure 14 (p. 461). Copyright 2000, with permission of the Ecological Society of America.
Some other processes like degradation and fragmentation also contribute to the impoverishment of the world's forests and impact global biogeochemical cycling. Three mostly used definitions of degradation (of FRA, International Timber Trade Organization (ITTO), and UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)) are comparable with respect to the main clusters. Forest degradation means a process leading to a temporary or permanent decline in the density or structure of forest cover or its species composition, and thus leading to a lower capacity of forest to supply products and or services, and finally to reduction or loss of the biological productivity of the land. Many reasons can contribute to forest degradation, including diverse human-induced disturbances unsustainable, excessive forest exploitation insufficient logging short rotation periods etc. In many regions of the world, particularly where forest ecosystems are impacted by accelerated regimes of natural and human-induced...
Causes of the rapid decline in the vitality of metallophyte vegetation are well-known for secondary and tertiary sites, as mentioned above. Science lacks coherent insight into the exact measures for its restoration. For conservation and restoration efforts it is important to set up programmes with experimental restoration measures with scientific research focused on the interaction of micro-organisms and metallophytes. Furthermore, research into the geographic distribution, ecological amplitude and niche differentiation of metallophytes, and the impact of ecological management and habitat alteration on metallo-phyte vegetation, is necessary to facilitate conservation and to develop and manage sites in the future.
Almost every organism is potential food for some other organism. Thus being eaten is perhaps the most important biotic cause of mortality. In the classical sense, a predator is a carnivore, an animal that eats other animals. This concept is, however, too narrow to be functional. We will therefore consider under the general heading predator-prey relationships all interactions that result in energy transfer from one organism to another, and with few exceptions, represent a mortality factor for the prey. This definition can be applied to flagellates that consume bacteria, herbivores that eat algae or macrophytes, carnivores that feed on other animals, and parasites. This broad definition is justified, since each of these interactions has the same end result for the prey, namely, mortality, except for benign forms of parasitism where the host suffers only reduced vitality and growth. There are basic similarities between a population of algae that are eaten by filter-feeding zooplankton...
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