Sulfur Oxidation State

Sulfur Oxidation State

Figure 13.26 Dimethyl sulfide reactions over remote ocean waters. (DMSP, dimethylsulfonium propionate).

These aerosols themselves, along with the clouds that form when they serve as cloud condensation nuclei, affect the solar radiation reaching the ocean surface through scattering of incoming light and direct shading. In addition to the effects on the global radiation (and heat) balance, it may be that large-scale oceanic algal blooms promote atmospheric shading indirectly, thereby decreasing their own activity.

A variety of chemoorganotrophic and chemolithotrophic bacteria are able to oxidize DMS remaining in the water phase, producing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is also frequently generated as a waste contaminant in paper manufacturing operations. Bacteria such as Hyphomicrobium are then capable of using DMSO aerobically as a sole source of carbon, energy, and sulfur. Alternatively, DMSO can be reduced under anaerobic conditions by organisms utilizing it as an electron acceptor, producing DMS again.

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