Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was first noticed in the southwestern United States in 1993 by physicians treating victims with symptoms frightfully similar to those of Ebola (Section 12.7.9). Patients were suffering from an initial fever followed by the abrupt onset of acute pulmonary edema and shock. This outbreak involved 53 infections, with 32 fatalities. A rapid, systematic epidemiological study eventually determined that the responsible agent was a hantavirus, with the deer mouse as the principal reservoir. Infection usually stems from inhalation of aerosolized dried mouse feces or urine.
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