20.1. Typical carcinogenic toxicity tests can only detect substances that will cause at least 10% response in the test animals. In terms of carcinogenic toxicity (ED10) and noncarcinogenic toxicity (MTD), what circumstances would make the carcinogeni-city of a substance undetectable by a bioassay? What could be done about this situation?

20.2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using fish as an aquatic testing organism in place of Daphnia?

20.3. The relative risk for cancer for a smoker compared to a nonsmoker increases with the number of years of smoking. The estimated risk of dying from lung cancer in a single year for a 70-year-old who has been smoking for 50 years is 649 per 100,000 people. This is 27 times the risk for a 70-year-old nonsmoker. What is the risk for the population of 70-year-olds as a whole, assuming that one-third of the population smokes?

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