Effects Of Wind Speed And Direction

Horizontal winds play a significant role in the transport and dilution of pollutants. As wind speed increases, the volume of air moving by a source in a period of time also increases. If the emission rate is relatively constant, a doubling of the wind speed halves the pollutant concentration, as the concentration is an inverse function of the wind speed. Pollutant dispersion is also affected by the variability in wind direction (Godish 1991). If the wind direction is relatively constant, the...

Wind Speed

The wind speed is the mean wind speed over the vertical distribution of a plume. However, usually the only wind FIG. 5.8.6 Horizontal dispersion coefficient as a function of downwind distance from the source. (Reprinted from D.B. Turner, 1970, Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates (Revised), Office of Air Programs Pub. No. AP-26, Research Triangle Park, N.C. U.S. EPA.) FIG. 5.8.6 Horizontal dispersion coefficient as a function of downwind distance from the source. (Reprinted from D.B....

Impact On Water Resources

The main consequences of climatic changes to inland waters include the following (da Cunha 1988) (a) changes in the global amount of water resources and in the spatial and temporal distribution of these resources (b) changes in soil moisture (c) changes in extreme phenomena related to water resources, i.e., floods and droughts (d) changes in water quality (e) changes in sedimentation processes and (f) changes in water demand. The consequences of climatic change on water quality include possible...

Effluent Recycling Pump

FIG. 7.35.9 Schematic diagram of two fluidized-bed reactors in series for biological wastewater treatment. (Reprinted, with permission, from E.T. Oppelt and J.M. Smith, 1981, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research and current thinking on fluidised-bed biological treatment, in Biological fluidised bed treatment of water and waste water, edited by P.F. Cooper and B. Atkinson, Chichester Ellis Horwood Ltd., Publishers.) to 4.8 kg m3 day for a standard oxygen-activated sludge process. The...

Separation at the Source

Kitchen designers and suppliers of kitchen equipment will need to become more sensitive to the needs of recycling. Major manufacturers of kitchen equipment should make sorting drawers, lazy Susan sorting bins, and tilt-out bins as standard kitchen equipment. Kitchen designers should keep in mind small convenience items, such as automatic label scrapers, trash chutes, and can flatteners to make recycling more convenient. The more finely household waste is separated, the greater its contribution...

The Condition of the Waters

In the natural life cycle of the water bodies (Figure 1), the sun provides the energy source for plant life (algae), which produces oxygen while converting the inorganic molecules into larger organic ones. The animal life obtains its muscle energy (heat) by consuming these molecules and by also consuming the dissolved oxygen content of the water. When a town or industry discharges additional organic material into the waters (which nature intended to be disposed of as fertilizer on land), the...

Table 1181 Criteria For Evaluating Carcinogen Experiments On Animals

Choice of animal model Number of animals Route of administration Identity of the Dose levels Age of treatment Conduct and duration of bioassays Two species of rats, and both sexes of each adequate controls sufficient animals to resolve any carcinogenic effect treatment and observation throughout animal lifetimes at range of doses likely to yield maximum cancer rates detailed pathological examination statistical analyses of results for significance Genetic homogenity in test animals, especially...

Table 333 Operationsbased Pollution Prevention Strategies

Implement a computerized raw material inventory tracking system. Maintain product inventory to minimize changeovers for batch operations. Purchase raw materials in totes and other reusable containers. Purchase raw materials with lower impurity levels. Practice first-in first-out inventory control. Housekeeping Practices Recycle and reuse wooden pallets used to store drums. Implement procedures to segregate solid waste from aqueous discharges. Implement procedures to segregate hazardous waste...

Recycling Waste Streams Directly

If waste streams can be recycled directly, this way is clearly the simplest to reduce waste and should be considered first. Most often, the waste streams that can be recycled directly are aqueous streams which, although contaminated, can be substituted for part of the freshwater feed to the process. Figure 3.8.2 is a flowsheet for the production of iso-propyl alcohol by the direct hydration of propylene. Propylene containing propane as an impurity is reacted with water to give a mixture which...