Effects Of Wind Speed And Direction

Horizontal winds play a significant role in the transport and dilution of pollutants. As wind speed increases, the volume of air moving by a source in a period of time also increases. If the emission rate is relatively constant, a doubling of the wind speed halves the pollutant concentration, as the concentration is an inverse function of the wind speed. Pollutant dispersion is also affected by the variability in wind direction (Godish 1991). If the wind direction is relatively constant, the...

Wind Speed

The wind speed is the mean wind speed over the vertical distribution of a plume. However, usually the only wind FIG. 5.8.6 Horizontal dispersion coefficient as a function of downwind distance from the source. (Reprinted from D.B. Turner, 1970, Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates (Revised), Office of Air Programs Pub. No. AP-26, Research Triangle Park, N.C. U.S. EPA.) FIG. 5.8.6 Horizontal dispersion coefficient as a function of downwind distance from the source. (Reprinted from D.B....

Impact On Water Resources

The main consequences of climatic changes to inland waters include the following (da Cunha 1988) (a) changes in the global amount of water resources and in the spatial and temporal distribution of these resources (b) changes in soil moisture (c) changes in extreme phenomena related to water resources, i.e., floods and droughts (d) changes in water quality (e) changes in sedimentation processes and (f) changes in water demand. The consequences of climatic change on water quality include possible...

Effluent Recycling Pump

FIG. 7.35.9 Schematic diagram of two fluidized-bed reactors in series for biological wastewater treatment. (Reprinted, with permission, from E.T. Oppelt and J.M. Smith, 1981, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency research and current thinking on fluidised-bed biological treatment, in Biological fluidised bed treatment of water and waste water, edited by P.F. Cooper and B. Atkinson, Chichester Ellis Horwood Ltd., Publishers.) to 4.8 kg m3 day for a standard oxygen-activated sludge process. The...

Table 461 National Primary Drinking Water Standards

MCLG MCL Potential Health Effects from (mg L) (mg L) Ingestion of Water Sources of Contaminant in Drinking Water Coliform and Surface Water Treatment Acrylamide Alachlor Aldicarb* Aldicarb sulfone* Aldicarb sulfoxide* Atrazine Carbofuran Chlordane* 4.0 4.0 Skeletal and dental fluorosis 0.007 0.007 Cancer, liver and kidney effects 0.2 0.2 Liver, nervous system effects zero TT Gastroenteric disease zero TT Legionnaire's disease N A TT Indicates water quality, effectiveness zero < 5 + Indicates...

Info

AAdapted from Office of Saline Water Special Report on Status of Desalting, November 1970. bDoes not include 3000 vapor compression units on vessels sailing the oceans each of these can produce several thousand gal per day. The U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards recommend a limit of 250 ppm for chloride and 500 ppm for total dissolved solids. When water is produced by desalination in areas governed by these standards, this level of salt and dissolved solids is specified as an...

Material Life Extension

Recycling is the reformation or reprocessing of a recovered material. The EPA defines recycling as the series of activities, including collection, separation, and processing, by which products or other materials are recovered from or otherwise diverted from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of new products other than fuel (U.S. EPA 1991a). Recycled material can follow two major pathways closed loop and open loop. In closed-loop systems, recovered...

Separation at the Source

Kitchen designers and suppliers of kitchen equipment will need to become more sensitive to the needs of recycling. Major manufacturers of kitchen equipment should make sorting drawers, lazy Susan sorting bins, and tilt-out bins as standard kitchen equipment. Kitchen designers should keep in mind small convenience items, such as automatic label scrapers, trash chutes, and can flatteners to make recycling more convenient. The more finely household waste is separated, the greater its contribution...

Summary and Conclusions

Composting is a cost effective and environmentally sound alternative for the stabilization and ultimate disposal of wastewater sludge. It produces compost a stable, humuslike material which is a soil conditioner. Thus, the process can achieve waste treatment with resource recovery and represents a beneficial use of sludge. Recent advances have been made in the basic fundamental science associated with composting along with the technology used for the process. These advances have increased the...

Aerobic Composting in MSW Management

The organic fraction of MSW includes food waste, paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, rubber, leather, and yard waste. Organic material makes up about half of the solid waste stream (Henry 1991) (see Section 10.5). Almost all organic components can be biologically converted although the rate at which these components degrade varies. Composting is the biological transformation of the organic fraction of MSW to reduce the volume and weight of the material and produce compost, a humus-like...

Table 7551 Design Considerations For Aerobic Sludge Composting Processes

Both untreated and digested sludge can be composted successfully. Untreated sludge has a greater potential for odors, particularly for windrow systems. Untreated sludge has more energy available, degrades more readily, and has a higher oxygen demand. Amendment and bulking agent characteristics, such as moisture content, particle size, and available carbon, affect the process and quality of the product. Bulking agents should be readily available. Wood chips, sawdust, recycled compost, and straw...

Table 333 Operationsbased Pollution Prevention Strategies

Implement a computerized raw material inventory tracking system. Maintain product inventory to minimize changeovers for batch operations. Purchase raw materials in totes and other reusable containers. Purchase raw materials with lower impurity levels. Practice first-in first-out inventory control. Housekeeping Practices Recycle and reuse wooden pallets used to store drums. Implement procedures to segregate solid waste from aqueous discharges. Implement procedures to segregate hazardous waste...

Recycling Waste Streams Directly

Flowchart Decision

If waste streams can be recycled directly, this way is clearly the simplest to reduce waste and should be considered first. Most often, the waste streams that can be recycled directly are aqueous streams which, although contaminated, can be substituted for part of the freshwater feed to the process. Figure 3.8.2 is a flowsheet for the production of iso-propyl alcohol by the direct hydration of propylene. Propylene containing propane as an impurity is reacted with water to give a mixture which...