Advection

A contaminant moves with the flow of groundwater according to Darcy's law. Darcy's law states that the flow rate of water through soil from point 1 to point 2 is proportional to the head loss and inversely proportional to the length of the flow path as

v where:

Q = groundwater flow rate

A = cross-sectional area of flow h2 — h1 = head loss between point 1 and point 2

L = distance between point 1 and point 2

K = hydraulic conductivity

The actual seepage or average pore water velocity can be calculated as

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