Recently, Celgene Corporation introduced the fluidized-bed reactor with its in-process, biotreatment system
(Gruber 1993; Sommerfield and Locheed 1992). Celgene's expertise was in selecting and applying the most suitable microbes for metabolizing specific organics, e.g., trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, other organic chlorides, ketones, and aromatics on EPA's list of seventeen hazardous materials targeted for 50% industrial emission reduction by 1995.
Figure 7.35.11 shows the Celgene fluidized-bed reactor. This reactor suspends carbon particles with the immobilized biomass in an upflow of 29 m/hr. This flow gives a 35-50% bed expansion (measured with a reflective IR-level detector). The time per pass is 8 min. With a total wastewater residence time of 400 min, the recycling ratio is 50.
The reactor injects oxygen from a PSA unit into the reactor recycling loop. A reactor effluent of DO = 35 ppm controls oxygen addition. Particles with excess biomass rise to the top of the reactor. Here, the biomass is knocked off with a slowly rotating peddle and carried with the effluent to the clarifier.
Celgene conducted seven large-scale pilot demonstrations, of which five involved industrial process streams. In the 43,200-gpd pilot plant located at General Electric's Mt. Vernon, Indiana facility, the methylene chloride was reduced from 1260 to <5 ppm. At a Gulf Coast petrochemical plant the effluent COD was reduced from 210 to 40 ppm with 0.3 ppm phenols, <5 ppm aromatics, and <10 ppm SS. Treatment costs are about $10 per 1000 gal. The commercialization of the process has been taken over by Sybron Chemicals.
Manville and Louisiana State University used a flu-idized-bed system at Ciba-Geigy's St. Gabriel plant site to lower the sodium chloroacetate level in a 3-4% saline waste stream from 6000 to 10 ppm (Attaway et al. 1988). They used a 0.25-inch, diatomaceous-earth carrier with a pore structure optimized for microbe immobilization in two bioreactors in series with a volume of 141.3 gal each. At a throughput of 0.25 gpm, they observed biological activity in both reactors. The effluent of the first reactor had a sodium chloroacetate level of 2400 ppm.
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