Japan has taken strong steps to control what are known in the United States as criteria pollutants from both stationary and mobile sources, with the exception of lead. Lead is included in a group of special particulate pollutants. These special particulates include lead and its compounds; cadmium and its compounds; chlorine and hydrogen chloride; fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, and silicon fluoride. The emission standards for these four classes of pollutants are associated with categories of sources and are shown in Table 4.3.1.
Investigations of emission rates and the environmental effects of potentially toxic air pollutants are ongoing. Some substances have been found to have a long-term impact on the environment, although present levels are not considered toxic. Japan has established regulations to control releases of asbestos and is examining other toxic materials for possible regulation, including various chlorinated volatile organics and formaldehyde.
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