If the source and nature of the waste is known, sampling and analysis are limited to the parameters of concern. If the waste is unknown, a full spectrum analysis is often required, including analysis for the 129 priority pollutants. Table 11.5.1 divides priority pollutants into seven categories (EPA 1980-1988).

Table 11.5.2 presents the recommended analytical procedures for the following categories: volatile organics, acid-extractable organics, base and neutral organics, pesticides and PCBs, metals, cyanides, asbestos, and others. Typically, organic analysis is performed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Typical sensitivity is on the order of 1-100 parts per billion (ppb), depending on the specific organic compound and the concentration of compounds that may interfere with the analysis. This technique gives good quantification and excellent qualification about the organics in the waste.

A number of references should be consulted before determining the analytical protocols for the waste sample (EPA 1979; EPA 1977; EPA 1985a; EPA 1979a; APHA 1980).

Because analysis of hazardous waste samples is costly, it is beneficial to prepare several samples and subject them to one of several screening procedures. Depending on the data obtained, the analytical program can then focus on the major constituents of concern, resulting in cost savings. Recommended screening tests include: pH; conductivity; total organic carbon (TOC); total phenols; organic scan (via GC with flame ionization detector); halogenated (via GC with electron capture detector); volatile organic

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