Environmental engineers have used organic flocculants to improve solids-liquid separations in the applications listed in Table 7.34.4. Municipal water treatment performance improves when flocculants supplement inorganic coagulants in removing solids from raw water and in improving the solids removal capabilities of vacuum filters and centrifuges. Municipal wastewater treatment uses floccu-lants to remove SS, flocculate precipitated nutrients such as phosphorus, and condition sludges for dewatering processes such as flotation, elutriation, filtration, centrifu-gation and sand-bed dewatering. Environmental engineers treat surface waters with flocculants to remove solids that are periodically received from storm runoff, dredging, or construction. Treating industrial waste with flocculants removes a variety of suspended pollutants and enhances the separation and removal of some emulsified and dissolved pollutants.

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