Table 11.16.1 summarizes the effectiveness of S/S on general contaminant groups for soils and sludges. The fixing and binding agents for S/S immobilize many heavy metals and solidify a wide variety of wastes including spent pickle liquor, contaminated soils, incinerator ash, wastewater treatment filter cake, waste sludge, and many radionuclides (EPA 1990). In general, S/S is considered as an established full-scale technology for nonvolatile heavy metals, although the long-term performance of S/S in Superfund applications has yet to be demonstrated (EPA 1991).

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