Availability Limitations

This technology is used to treat metal wastes including cations (e.g., Ni2+, Cd2+, Hg2+) and anions (e.g., CrO|~, SeOf~, HAsOf~). Limitations are selectivity and competition, pH, and suspended solids. Concentrated waste streams with greater than 25,000 mg/L contaminants can be more cost-effectively separated by other means. Solid concentrations greater than 50 mg/L should be avoided to prevent resin blinding.

Status. This is a commercially available process.

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