Availability Limitations

Evaporation can be applied to any mixture of liquids and volatile solids provided the liquid is volatile enough to evaporate under reasonable heating or vacuum conditions (both the liquid and the solid should be stable under those conditions). If the liquid is water, evaporation can be carried out in large ponds using solar energy. Aqueous waste can also be evaporated in closed process vessels using steam energy. The resulting water vapor can be condensed for reuse. Energy requirements are minimized by techniques such as vapor recompression or multiple effect evaporators. Evaporation is applied to solvent waste contaminated with nonvolatile impurities such as oil, grease, paint solids or polymeric resins. Mechanically agitated or wipe-thin-film evaporators (Figure 11.15.4) are used. Solvent is evaporated and recovered for reuse. The residue is the bottom stream, typically containing 30 to 50% solids.

Status. This process is commercially available.

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