a & e: 0.8-1.2; b: 1-1.4; c: 0.2-1; d & f: 0.6-1 PEAK


An important aspect of biological wastewater treatment is secondary clarification. First, biological solids (sludge) produced during biological wastewater treatment must be separated from treated effluent prior to final discharge. Therefore, a secondary clarifier must have an adequate clarification capacity to insure that SS discharge requirements are met. Second, since maintaining proper SRTs is important in the operation of activated-sludge processes, secondary clarifiers in the activated-sludge process must have an adequate thickening capacity to produce the required underflow density for sludge recirculation.

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