Hexavalent chromium salts occur as pollutants in industrial effluents from leather, aluminum anodizing, and metal plating. Chemical plant effluents contain these from extensive use of chromium salts as corrosion inhibitors in cooling systems.

In industrial effluents, chromium wastes are treated by reduction and precipitation, removing the pollutant, or by ion exchange in which chromate salt is recovered and the deionized water is reused. The latter treatment recovers the pollutant chromium for economical reuse.

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