Three general methods for collecting material for laboratory subsamples from containers of sorted waste are blind grab sampling, cutting (or tearing) representative pieces from large objects, and selecting representative whole objects for inclusion in the sampling. Blind grab sampling is the preferred approach for waste that mainly consists of small objects. Cutting representative pieces is appropriate for waste consisting of large objects with potentially different characteristics. Selecting representative whole objects is appropriate for waste containing only a few different types of objects.
Blind grab samples should be collected by hand or with an analogous grasping tool. The objective is to extract the material from a randomly selected but defined volume within the container of sorted material. When scoops and shovels are used in sampling heterogeneous materials, they tend to create bias by capturing dense, small objects while pushing light, large objects away.
In collecting subsamples from containers of sorted waste, samplers must realize that because sorting progresses from larger objects to smaller, the objects at the top of the container tend to be smaller than those at the bottom. Objects of different sizes can have different characteristics, even within the same waste category. Therefore, the sampler must ensure that the objects at different levels of the containers are represented in the samples. Emptying the container onto a dry and reasonably clean surface prior to collecting the subsample may be necessary.
If the laboratory samples are tested for metals, objects with known metals content should not be represented in the samples. Instead, such objects should be weighed, and the laboratory results should be adjusted to reflect the quantities of metals they contain. For example, if 8 oz of lead weights are found in 10tn of sorted waste, the weights represent 25 ppm of lead. The weights should be withheld from the laboratory sample, and 25 ppm should be added to the overall lead concentration indicated by the laboratory results. This procedure is more accurate than laboratory testing alone.
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