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Composting is the aerobic, theromophilic, biological decomposition of organic material under controlled conditions. It is essentially the same process that is responsible for the decay of organic matter in nature except that it occurs under controlled conditions.

Over the past 20 years, legislative actions have imposed strict limits on the disposal of organic waste such as sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, and agricultural waste due to the potentially severe environmental problems associated with the management of such residuals. For example, 10 years ago, most sludge produced in the United States was disposed in oceans or landfills. Ocean disposal is now illegal, and landfills are rapidly closing. Also, increasing, stringent, air pollution regulations make incineration less attractive.

At the same time, increased amounts of organic wastes are being generated. This increase is especially true of sewage sludge because of the upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and the expansion of services (U.S. EPA 1993).

As a consequence, new practices are being encouraged that include the treatment of organic waste with resource recovery. Composting is one of these practices (Kuchenrither et al. 1987). Composting is a method of solid waste treatment in which the organic component of the solid waste stream is biologically decomposed under controlled aerobic conditions to a state in which it can be safely handled, stored, and applied to the land without adversely affecting the environment. It is a controlled, or engineered, biological system.

Composting can provide pathogen kill, volume reduction and stabilization, and resource recovery. Properly composed waste is aesthetically acceptable, essentially free of human pathogens, and easy to handle. Compost can improve a soil's structure, increase its water retention, and provide nutrients for plant growth. As Hoitink and Keener (1993) note "It is not surprising therefore that composting of wastes has resulted in a variety of beneficial effects in agriculture as the Western World progressed from a 'throw-away' mentality to a more environmentally friendly society."

Golueke (1986) points out that composting relies more on scientific principles as time passes. At the same time, advances have been made in the technology used for the process, such as the static pile (Epstein et al. 1976), and the development of in-vessel systems (U.S. EPA 1989). Coupling the need for waste diversion practices (from landfills) with the advances in the fundamental science and process technology has increased the use of composting for wastewater treatment. Approximately 159 sludge composting facilities operate in the United States (Goldstein, Riggle, and Steuteville 1992).

This section concentrates on the fundamentals of sludge composting. Section 10.14 focuses on municipal solid waste composting. Several excellent sources provide more detail on composting principles (Hoitink and Keener 1993; Rynk 1992; Haug 1993).

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