The capital costs of a GAC system include the costs of carbon, carbon vessels, pumps and piping, electrical equipment and controls, housing, design, and contingencies. The cost depends on the flow rates, type of contaminant, concentrations, and discharge requirements. Costs can vary from $0.10-1.50/1000 gal treated for flow rates of 100 mgd to $1.20-6.30/1000 gal treated for flow rates of 0.1 mgd (O'Brien 1983).

Operation and maintenance costs include labor, energy, carbon replacement, and sampling and monitoring. The major cost, however, is carbon replacement which is a function of the carbon usage rate. Typical carbon costs

FIG. 9.17.12 Optimum carbon contact time. (Reprinted from E.K. Nyer, 1992, Groundwater treatment technology, 2d ed., New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.)

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